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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.10.2011.tde-05102012-150543
Document
Author
Full name
Renata Carolina Fernandes Santos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Matushima, Eliana Reiko (President)
Mangini, Paulo Rogério
Soares, Rodrigo Martins
Title in Portuguese
Importância de mamíferos neotropicais na epidemiologia de protozooses: diagnóstico, caracterização molecular e aspectos ecológicos da infecção por Giardia e Cryptosporidium
Keywords in Portuguese
Cryptosporidium spp
Giardia spp
Caracterização molecular
Mamíferos neotropicais
Medicina da conservação
Abstract in Portuguese
Giardia e Cryptosporidium são protozoários cosmopolitas cuja epidemiologia é especialmente importante devido ao seu expressivo potencial zoonótico. Animais silvestres são frequentemente relatados como reservatórios da giardiose e criptosporidiose humanas, todavia, são escassas as evidências sobre sua real importância na manutenção e disseminação destas protozooses. No intuito de avaliar a ocorrência e determinar os genótipos responsáveis pela infecção de mamíferos neotropicais, 452 amostras fecais procedentes de 52 diferentes espécies, in situ e ex situ, de sete localidades distintas foram avaliadas por métodos de diagnóstico microscópico, seguidos por técnicas moleculares de amplificação (Nested PCR), sequenciamento e caracterização genotípica. Os resultados revelaram prevalência aparente de 6,2% para Giardia spp. e de 4,8% para Cryptosporidium spp. (n=343). Dezessete diferentes espécies de mamíferos silvestres foram positivas, sendo 11 para Giardia spp., nove para Cryptosporidium spp. e três para ambos os protozoários. A caracterização molecular revelou a predominante presença de genótipos zoonóticos em mamíferos cativos (Giardia duodenalis genótipo AI) e de genótipos hospedeiro-específicos em animais de vida livre (Cryptosporidium sp. rat genotype III e Cryptosporidium wrairi). Foram também identificados Giardia duodenalis genótipo D em cachorro-do-mato Cerdocyon thous e Cryptosporidium sp. deer mouse genotype IV em bugio-preto Alouatta caraya, ambos mantidos em cativeiro. Aspectos ecológicos, como habitat, guilda trófica, estratégia do uso do ambiente e influência antrópica, foram considerados relevantes para a ocorrência dos parasitas. Tais achados demonstraram que animais silvestres podem ser infectados por genótipos zoonóticos e específicos dos agentes, o que revela a importância de estudos envolvendo esta abordagem para sugerir possíveis relações entre os protozoários, hospedeiros humanos, animais domésticos e silvestres perante diferentes características ambientais.
Title in English
Importance of neotropical mammals in the epidemiology of protozoosis: diagnosis, molecular characterization and ecological aspects of infection by Giardia and Cryptosporidium
Keywords in English
Cryptosporidium spp
Giardia spp
Conservation medicine
Molecular characterization
Neotropical mammals
Abstract in English
Giardia and Cryptosporidium are cosmopolitan protozoans whose epidemiology is especially important due to its significant zoonotic potencial. Wild animals are often reported as reservoirs of human giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis, however, there is little evidence about their real importance in the maintenance and dissemination of these protozoosis. In order to evaluate the occurrence and determine the genotypes responsible for neotropical mammals infection, 452 fecal samples of 52 different species, in situ and ex situ, of seven locations were evaluated by microscopic methods of diagnosis, followed by molecular amplification (Nested PCR), sequencing and genotypic chacacterization techniques. The results revealed an apparent prevalence of 6,2% for Giardia spp. and 4,8% for Cryptosporidium spp. (n=343). Seventeen different species of wild mammals were positive, 11 for Giardia spp., nine for Cryptosporidium spp. and three for both protozoans. Molecular characterization shows predominant presence of zoonotic genotypes in captive mammals (Giardia duodenalis genotype AI) and host-specific genotypes in free-living animals (Cryptosporidium sp. rat genotype III and Cryptosporidium wrairi). Giardia duodenalis genotype D in crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous and Cryptosporidium sp. deer mouse genotype IV in black howler monkey Alouatta caraya, both in captivity, were also identified. Ecological aspects, like habitat, trophic guilds, strategy of using the environment and human influence, were considered relevant to occurrence of the parasites. These findings could demonstrate wild mammals can be infected by zoonotic and specific genotypes of agents, which shows the importance of studies using this approach to suggest possible relationships between protozoans, human hosts, domestic animals and wildlife facing different environmental characteristics.
 
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Publishing Date
2013-06-28
 
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