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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.10.2016.tde-06102016-150811
Document
Author
Full name
Juliana Martins Aguiar
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Soares, Rodrigo Martins (President)
Miyagi, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki
Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera
Soares, Herbert Sousa
Souza, Silvio Luis Pereira de
Title in Portuguese
Genotipagem de Giardia duodenalis: detecção de infecções mistas e recombinações gênicas em amostras de origem humana
Keywords in Portuguese
Giardia duodenalis
ASH
Micromanipulação
Recombinação genética
Abstract in Portuguese
Giardia duodenalis é um protozoário de distribuição mundial responsável por causar infecções entéricas em uma grande variedade de mamíferos, incluindo os humanos. Mesmo apresentando pouca variação em sua morfologia, os isolados podem ser diferenciados, de acordo com análises de proteína e polimorfismo de DNA, em pelo menos oito agrupamentos genéticos distintos, denominados assemblages (A-H). Apenas os assemblages A e B têm sido reportados em humanos e outros mamíferos. Isolados de assemblage A podem, ainda, ser divididos em quatro sub-assemblages (AI, AII, AIII e AIV). Sequencias heterogêneas têm sido frequentemente identificadas em estudos de caracterização molecular envolvendo amostras contendo múltiplos cistos do parasita. Buscando estudar a ocorrência dos eventos de heterozigose de sequencia alélica (ASH) e recombinação gênica, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo isolar cistos de G. duodenalis empregando-se a técnica de micromanipulação e caracterizá-los molecularmente através da análise multilócus envolvendo os genes gdh, tpi, orfC4 e bg. Dez cistos foram individualizados e utilizados na pesquisa. Todos foram igualmente identificados por todos os genes, nove cistos caracterizados como assemblage AII e um cisto caracterizado como assemblage B. Os cromatogramas oriundos do cisto identificado como assemblages B apresentaram diversos sítios heterogêneos nos genes gdh, bg e orfC4, sendo que, nesses dois últimos, observaram-se sobreposições dos alelos AII e B no produto sequenciado (heterozigose inter assemblage). Os produtos de PCR foram clonados e as sequencias obtidas revelaram a ocorrência dos dois alelos neste único cisto. Os sítios polimórficos encontrados nas sequencias do gene gdh indicaram heterozigose intra assemblage B. Embora ASH já tenha sido relatada em cistos individualizados de G. duodenalis, estes são os primeiros resultados indicando a presença dos dois alelos, simultaneamente, em um único indivíduo. Esses resultados demonstram fortes evidências que ocorre troca genética entre indivíduos geneticamente distintos de G. duodenalis
Title in English
Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis: detection of mixed infection and genetic recombination in samples of human origin
Keywords in English
Giardia duodenalis
ASH
Genetic recombination
Micromanipulation
Abstract in English
Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide distribution enteric protozoan responsible for causing infections in a wide variety of mammals, including humans. Even showing little change in their morphology, isolates can be distinguished, according to the analysis of proteins and DNA polymorphisms in at least eight distinct genetic groups, known assemblages (A - H). Only assemblages A and B have been reported in humans and other mammals. Isolates of assemblage A also can be divided into four sub-assemblages (AI, AII, AIII and AIV). Heterogeneous sequences have been frequently identified in studies involving molecular characterization of samples containing multiple cysts of the parasite. Seeking to study the occurrence of allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH) and genetic recombination events, the present study aimed to isolate G. duodenalis cysts employing the micromanipulation technique and characterize them molecularly through multilocus analysis involving gdh, tpi, orfC4 and bg genes. Ten cysts were individualized and used in the research. All cysts were equally identified for all genes; nine cysts were characterized as assemblage AII and one characterized as assemblage B. The chromatograms derived from the cyst identified as assemblage B presented many heterogeneous sites in gdh, bg and orfC4 genes, and in these last two, there were overlaps of alleles AII and B in the sequenced product (heterozygous inter assemblage). PCR products were cloned and the sequences obtained revealed the occurrence of two alleles at this single cyst. The polymorphic sites found in the sequences of the gdh gene indicated intra heterozygosity assemblage B. Although ASH has already been reported in G. duodenalis individualized cysts, these are the first results indicating the presence of two alleles simultaneously in a single individual. These results demonstrate strong evidence that genetic exchange occurs between individuals genetically distinct of G. duodenalis
 
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Publishing Date
2016-10-10
 
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