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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.10.2008.tde-17062008-104457
Document
Author
Full name
Ricardo Ramos Cabrera
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Labruna, Marcelo Bahia (President)
Battesti, Darci Moraes Barros
Gennari, Solange Maria
Leite, Romário Cerqueira
Marques, Mirian David
Title in Portuguese
Influência do fotoperíodo e da temperatura na diapausa comportamental de larvas não-alimentadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) provenientes de Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brasil
Keywords in Portuguese
Amblyomma cajennense
Acari e Ixodidae
Carrapatos
Diapausa
Abstract in Portuguese
A diapausa comportamental em carrapatos é caracterizada pela perda temporária da agressividade do indivíduo, tendo como conseqüência o prolongamento do período sem alimentação, sendo detectada em larvas de Amblyomma cajennense. Esta espécie destaca-se como principal vetor da Febre Maculosa no Sudeste brasileiro. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos do fotoperíodo e da temperatura na regulação da diapausa comportamental em larvas não-alimentadas de A. cajennense. Para isso, fêmeas ingurgitadas foram obtidas de eqüinos naturalmente infestados de Janeiro à Fevereiro de 2005 e 2006. No laboratório, cada grupo experimental foi composto por oito fêmeas ingurgitadas colocadas em vaso contendo capim braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens). Cada vaso foi exposto a uma condição de temperatura e fotoperíodo dentro de incubadoras B.O.D. (Marconi MA 402). A fotofase foi estabelecida por 4 lâmpadas (Philips TLT 75RS Extra luz do dia 20w) e a escotofase pela ausência total de luz. Os parâmetros biológicos observados foram período de pré-postura, incubação dos ovos, de permanência das larvas debaixo do capim e de presença de larvas na ponta do capim (comportamento de busca pelo hospedeiro). Paralelamente, verificou-se o poder infestante de larvas em diapausa para frangos (Gallus gallus), em comparação com larvas em não diapausa. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que, sob variação de fotoperíodo com temperatura constante de 25oC, a duração do intervalo de pré-postura e de incubação dos ovos foi semelhante em todos os grupos experimentais (1 a 2 semanas para período de pré-postura e 5 semanas para período de incubação dos ovos). Observou-se que a combinação de fotoperíodo 14:10 (claro:escuro) induziu a diapausa, sendo que o fotoperíodo de 12:12 ou 10:14 determinaram o término da diapausa. Em outras combinações de fotoperíodo, onde larvas estiveram no fotoperíodo de 12:12 ou 10:14 desde a eclosão, a aglomeração nas pontas do capim ocorreu dentro das primeiras semanas de vida das larvas. Larvas mantidas em fotoperíodo 12:12 e 10:14 não entraram em dormência e larvas mantidas em condição de fotoperíodo de 14:10 permaneceram no solo por tempo maior que as outras. No entanto, a diminuição da temperatura de 25 para 15oC, no fotoperíodo constante de 14:10, induziu o término da diapausa. Em todos os experimentos realizados sob fotoperíodo de 10:14, nenhum dos regimes de temperatura foi eficiente para induzir a diapausa. Houve diferença no intervalo de incubação dos ovos entre grupos experimentais com temperatura de 25 e 20oC. Não houve diferenças significantes (P > 0,05) entre proporções de larvas em diapausa e em não diapausa que se ingurgitaram nos frangos, embora larvas em diapausa apresentaram período parasitário significativamente mais longo (P < 0,05). Conclui-se que a diapausa em larvas de A. cajennense é induzida somente se a condição de fotoperíodo estiver com maior número de horas de claro (14:10) durante a eclosão das larvas. Temperaturas de 20 ou 25oC não são capazes de induzir a diapausa, quando mantidas em fotoperíodo 12:12 ou 10:14. O término da diapausa é desencadeado tanto pela mudança de fotoperíodo (14:10 para 12:12 ou 10:14) como pela diminuição da temperatura de 25 para 15oC.
Title in English
Effect of photoperiod and temperature on the behavioral diapause of Amblyomma cajennense unfed larvae from Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil
Keywords in English
Amblyomma cajennense
Acari and Ixodidae
Diapause
Ticks
Abstract in English
Behavioral diapause in ticks is characterized by the temporary loss of aggressiveness, and consequently, to the extension of the starvation period, as recently detected in Amblyomma cajennense larvae. This species is the main vector of spotted fever in southeastern Brazil. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of photoperiod and temperature on the regulation of behavioral diapause of A. cajennense unfed larvae. For this purpose, engorged females were obtained from horses naturally infested from January to February in each of the years 2005 and 2006. In the laboratory, each experimental group was composed by eight engorged females, which were placed in a grass plot composed by the grass Brachiaria decumbens, held in a small basket (40 cm diameter). Each plot was exposed to a particular condition of temperature and photoperiod within a BOD incubator (Marconi MA 402). Photoperiod was provided by 4 lamps (Philips TLT 75RS 20w) and scotophase by total darkness. Evaluated tick biological parameters were preoviposition and incubation periods, as well as the period of time the larvae remained under the grass after hatching, and the period of time that larvae were seen questing on the top of the grass leaves (host questing). The infestation capacity of diapause larvae to feed on chickens (Gallus gallus) was compared to larvae without being in diapause. The results showed that under variation of photoperiod and constant temperature of 25oC, the duration of preoviposition and incubation periods were similar in all the experimental groups (1 to 2 weeks to preoviposition and 5 weeks for egg incubation). Photoperiod 14:10 (light: dark) induced recently hatched larvae to enter diapause, whereas photoperiod 12:12 or 10:14 determined the end of diapause. In other combinations of photoperiod, where larvae were in photoperiod 12:12 or 10:14 from the eclosion, formation of larval clusters on the top of grass leaves occurred within the first weeks after larval eclosion. Larvae kept in photoperiod 12:12 and 10:14 did not enter in dormancy, whereas larvae maintained in photoperiod 14:10 since eclosion remained in the soil under the grass for longer periods. However, the decrease in temperature from 25 to 15oC under constant photoperiod of 14:10 triggered the end of diapause. In all experiments performed under photoperiod of 10:14, none of the temperature regimes was effective to induce diapause. There were different incubation periods between experimental groups held at 25 and 20oC. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the proportions of diapause and non-diapause larvae that engorged on chickens, although the period of parasitism of larvae in diapause was significantly longer (P < 0.05). As conclusions for the present study, diapause in A. cajennense larvae is induced only if the condition of photoperiod is with more hours of light (14:10) during larval eclosion. Temperatures of 20 or 25oC are not able to induce diapause, when kept in photoperiod 12:12 or 10:14. The end of diapause is triggered both by the change in photoperiod (14:10 to 12:12 or 10:14) and the decrease in temperature from 25 to 15oC.
 
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Publishing Date
2008-06-25
 
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  • CABRERA, Ricardo R., and LABRUNA, Marcelo B.. Influence of Photoperiod and Temperature on the Larval Behavioral Diapause of Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 46(6):1303-1309. 2009 [online], 2009, vol. 46, n. 6, p. 1303-1309. ABSTRACT Larval behavioral diapause was shown to be the major factor controlling the 1-yr generation pattern of Amblyomma cajennense (F.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in Brazil. During fieldwork, this behavior was shown to coincide with long daylength (>12 h) and high mean ground temperature (≈25°C), which prevail during spring-summer in Brazil. The current study evaluated biological parameters of engorged females, their eggs, and the resultant larvae inside plastic pots planted with the grass Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. held in incubators set with different combinations of temperature and photoperiod. Both the long daylength (photoperiod 14:10 [L:D] h) and high temperature (25°C) during larval hatching induced larval behavioral diapause, characterized by the confinement of hatched larvae on the ground below the vegetation for many weeks. When long daylength was present during hatching, but temperature was low (15°C), larvae did not enter diapause. Similarly, when short daylength (10:14 or 12:12) was present during larval hatching, larvae did not enter diapause regardless whether temperature was high (25°C). Termination of diapause was induced by shifting photoperiod from 14:10 to 12:12 or the temperature from 25 to 15°C. When applied to field conditions, the present results indicate that both high ground mean temperature (≈25°C) and long daylength (>12 h) during spring-summer (October—March) are responsible for the induction and maintenance of A. cajennense larval behavioral diapause in the field. Furthermore, both the low ground mean temperature (≈20°C) and the short daylength (<12 h) during autumn (April—May) are responsible for termination of larval behavioral diapause in the field.. [cited 2012-07-09]. Available from : <http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/033.046.0608>
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