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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Eveline Zuniga
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Benites, Nilson Roberti (President)
Domingues, Paulo Francisco
Hora, Aline Santana da
Mascolli, Roberta
Pereira, César Augusto Dinóla
Title in Portuguese
Resistência antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus spp. isolados de mastite clínica e subclínica bovina: análise fenotípica, detecção de genes e relação com presença de genes codificadores de adesinas e biofilme
Keywords in Portuguese
Staphylococcus spp.
Adesinas
Biofilme
Mastite bovina
Resistência Antimicrobiana
Abstract in Portuguese
A mastite representa um grande desafio na pecuária leiteira, visto que é uma das afecções que mais acometem o rebanho bovino ocasionando grande impacto econômico. As bactérias são importantes agentes associados à enfermidade, sendo que as mais comumente encontradas são as do gênero Staphylococcus, associadas tanto às manifestações clínicas quanto subclínicas. A terapia antimicrobiana é usualmente requerida como tratamento, auxiliando as defesas do animal para a eliminação do agente invasor, sendo assim, de suma importância monitorar a sensibilidade dos patógenos aos antimicrobianos. Visto que a resistência aos medicamentos utilizados tem se tornado frequente, há a necessidade de estudos mais abrangentes sobre o assunto. Desta forma, o presente estudo avaliou 300 isolados de Staphylococcus provenientes de amostras de leite de bovinos com mastite clínica e/ou subclínica de propriedades de exploração leiteira. A espécie mais detectada nas análises foi S. aureus, e dentre os genes que codificam para adesinas e biofilmes os mais frequentes foram (eno, fib e fnbA) e (bap, icaA, icaD). A combinação mais frequente no tocante às adesinas foi eno-fib-fnbA, e para os biofilmes foram bap e bap-icaD. Os maiores índices de resistência foram verificados para os antimicrobianos betalactâmicos (amoxicilina, ampicilina e penicilina). Identificou-se as maiores frequências de sensibilidade para cefalotina, seguida pela oxacilina e gentamicina, e não foi detectada relação de concordância da oxacilina com os betalactâmicos. Avaliou-se a concentração mínima inibitória (MIC) para ampicilina, gentamicina, oxacilina e penicilina, para todas as cepas resistentes no antibiograma. Posteriormente, investigou-se os genes responsáveis pela codificação de resistência antimicrobiana, com os genes femA e femB sendo os mais comuns, porém o gene femA não foi detectado em todas as cepas de S. aureus. Os genes mecA e blaZ foram identificados, porém em baixa frequência, e o homólogo de mecA, o mecALGA251, somente em duas cepas. As informações obtidas podem ajudar em diferentes aspectos acerca dos perfis dos microrganismos no tocante aos fatores de virulência dos mesmos, permitindo novas abordagens relativas a terapias e medidas de prevenção à mastite.
Title in English
Antimicrobial resistance evaluated by phenotypic and genotypic methods through the detection and gene expression in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis
Keywords in English
Staphylococcus spp.
Adhesins
Antimicrobial resistance
Biofilm
Bovine mastitis
Abstract in English
Mastitis represents a major challenge in dairy farming, since it is one of the affections that most impact the cattle herd, causing great economic distress. Bacteria are important agents associated with the disease, and the most commonly found are those of the genus Staphylococcus, associated with both clinical and subclinical manifestations. Antimicrobial therapy is usually required as a treatment, assisting the animal's defenses to eliminate the invading agent, and it is therefore of paramount importance to monitor the susceptibility of pathogens to antimicrobials. Since resistance to drugs commonly used has become frequent, there is a need for more comprehensive studies on the subject. Thus, the present study evaluated 300 isolates of Staphylococcus from samples of dairy cattle from dairy farms. The most prevalent species in the analyses were S. aureus, and among the genes coding for adhesins and biofilms the most frequent combinations were (eno, fib and fnbA) and (bap, icaA, icaD). The most frequent combination for adhesins was eno-fib-fnbA, and for biofilms they were bap and bap-icaD. The highest resistance indices were verified for betalactam antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin and penicillin). The highest frequencies of sensitivity were identified for cephalothin, followed by oxacillin and gentamicin, and no concordance relationship was found between oxacillin and betalactam. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ampicillin, gentamicin, oxacillin and penicillin were performed for all strains resistant to the antibiogram. Subsequently, the genes responsible for the encoding of antimicrobial resistance were investigated, with the femA and femB genes being the most common, but the femA gene was not detected in all strains of S. aureus. The mecA and blaZ genes were identified, but at low frequency, and the mecA homolog, mecALGA251, was only found in two strains. The information obtained can help in different aspects about the microorganisms' profiles regarding their virulence factors, allowing new approaches to therapies and mastitis prevention measures.
 
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Release Date
2019-10-23
Publishing Date
2017-12-15
 
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