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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.101.2018.tde-12032018-105644
Document
Author
Full name
Bruna Eloy de Amorim
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Guimarães, Feliciano de Sa (President)
Fuser, Igor
Cameron, James Jerome John
Title in Portuguese
A importância das National Oil Companies para as Relações Internacionais contemporâneas: um estudo de caso da GAZPROM
Keywords in Portuguese
Alemanha
China
Gazprom
Política Externa
Rússia
Turquia
Ucrânia
Abstract in Portuguese
O controle sobre recursos naturais como o petróleo e o gás representa um aspecto de fundamental importância no relacionamento entre países. Sendo majoritariamente controlada pelo Estado, o gerenciamento que as National Oil Companies (NOCs) fazem desses recursos possibilita sua utilização como uma ferramenta de política externa. Com o aumento dos preços dos hidrocarbonetos no mercado internacional a partir de 2000, o restabelecimento das NOCs passou a constituir uma nova possibilidade para se projetar poder em âmbito global. Nesse contexto, buscou-se, neste trabalho, analisar a eficácia da atuação da principal NOC russa, a Gazprom, para a política externa de Moscou. Para tanto, foram investigadas as relações da Rússia com quatro países: Alemanha, Ucrânia, China e Turquia. A conclusão é a de que a operacionalização da Gazprom pelo governo russo tem gerado resultados positivos para o país, ainda que tais resultados não alcancem todos os casos. Verificou-se que, em diferentes níveis, Alemanha, China e Turquia têm evitado contrapor-se diretamente a Moscou, sendo a Alemanha o caso mais significativo. A forte dependência alemã do gás natural russo tem mitigado uma postura hostil a Moscou, independentemente do partido que esteja à frente do governo. No caso da China, a dependência dos hidrocarbonetos russos também desempenha um papel importante na relação bilateral, embora outros interesses, ademais de questões energéticas, constituam igualmente fatores de aproximação e convergência. Em relação à Turquia, embora a dependência energética dos recursos russos seja também significativa nesse país, a localização estratégica do território turco tem permitido a Ancara barganhar vantagens econômicos junto a Moscou, abrandando, em certa medida, o poder da Gazprom. A Ucrânia, por sua vez, é um caso claramente dissonante: mesmo com a forte dependência deste país do gás natural russo, a política externa de Kiev tem assumido posturas manifestadamente contrárias aos interesses de Moscou.
Title in English
The importance of National Oil Companies for contemporary International Relations: a case study of Gazprom
Keywords in English
China
Foreign Policy
Gazprom
Germany
Russia
Turkey
Ukraine
Abstract in English
Control over natural resources such as oil and gas is an aspect of fundamental importance in the relationship between countries. Being mostly controlled by the state, through National Oil Companies (NOCs), the management of these resources makes it possible for countries to use them as a foreign policy tool. With the increase in the prices of hydrocarbons in the international market since 2000, the reestablishment of NOCs became a new possibility of projecting power at a global level. In this context, the aim of this work is to analyze the effectiveness of the main Russian NOC, Gazprom, for Russian foreign policy. To this end, Russian relations with four countries, Germany, Ukraine, China and Turkey, were investigated. The conclusion is that Gazprom's management by Moscow has generated positive results for the country, although such positive results do not cover all cases. It has been found that, at different levels, Germany, China and Turkey have avoided opposing Moscow directly, with Germany being the most significant case. Germany's heavy dependence on Russian natural gas helps to mitigate any hostile stance against Moscow, regardless of which party is in office. In the case of China, dependence on Russian hydrocarbons also plays an important role in the bilateral relationship, but other factors, in addition to energy issues, contribute to their approximation and convergence. In the case of Turkey, although dependence on Russian energy is also high, Turkey's strategic location has allowed Ankara to bargain with Moscow, softening, to some extent, Gazprom's power. Ukraine, in turn, is a clearly a dissonant case: even with a strong dependence on Russian natural gas, Kiev has taken stances that are manifestly contrary to the interests of Moscow.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-03-27
 
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