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Doctoral Thesis
Full name
Fátima Marília Andrade de Carvalho
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Piracicaba, 1995
Title in Portuguese
Comportamento das exportações brasileiras e a dinâmica do complexo agroindustrial
Keywords in Portuguese
Abstract in Portuguese
Populações de milho braquíticas, tem sido desenvolvidas no Departamento de Genética da ESALQ, como uma solução para a obtenção de cultivares de plantas baixas, mais eficientes e com maior resistência ao acamamento. No presente trabalho, são comparados materiais braquíticos com as correspondentes versões normais. Para tanto cinco populações de milho de porte normal e cinco braquíticos, foram avaliadas em experimentos em faixa, com seis repetições em 4 locais em 1981/82. As populações com as correspondentes versões normais e braquíticas, foram: 1. ‘ESALQ VD. 2’ e ‘Piranão VD. 2; 2. ‘ESALQ VF.1’ e ‘Piranão VF.1 ‘; 3. ‘ESALQ VD.4’ e ‘Piranão VD.4’;4. ‘ESALQ VF.3’ e ‘Piranão VF.3’; 5. ‘Maya XIII’ e ‘Mayanão II’. As populações ‘VD.2’ e ‘VD.4’ são de germoplasma Tuxpeño e com grãos dentados amarelos e brancos, respectivamente. As populações ‘VF.1’ e ‘VF.3’ são de germoplasma cristalino da Colômbia, Cuba e Brasil e apresentam grãos de cor laranja e de cor branca, respectivamente. A população ‘Maya’ desenvolvida pelo Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, corresponde a um milho dentado amarelo de germoplasma Tuxpeño. As populações braquíticas foram tão produtivas quanto as normais. As variedades ‘Piranão VD.2’, ‘Mayanão II’ e ‘Piranão VF.3’ foram as braquíticas mais produtivas com 99,8%, 97,1% e 99,3% da população das respectivas formas normais. Uma das mais importantes vantagens das formas braquíticas foi sua maior resistência ao acamamento, uma vez que, enquanto as plantas altas acamaram 33,4% elas apresentaram apenas 11,8% de plantas acamadas. Paralelamente apresentaram uma altura média de planta de 169,8 cm correspondendo a uma redução de 31,0% das altas. A posição da espiga no caule foi mais mediana (AE/AP = 0,53),enquanto nas normais situava-se no terço superior (AE/AP = 0,63), O tamanho do pendão sofreu uma redução de 10,7% com relação ao número de ramificações e a porcentagem de espigas pendentes de 53,9% nas formas braquíticas. Em termos médios não houve diferença significativa entre os portes para número de dias para o florescimento masculino, intervalo entre o florescimento masculino e feminino e ainda para número de espigas por planta. Pelos resultados encontrados as formas braquíticas apresentaram vantagens que as tornam recomendáveis para a agricultura a brasileira. Assim é que foram tão produtivas quanto as populações normais com as quais foram comparadas que representaram as melhores do Pais, além de serem muito mais resistentes ao acamamento.
Title in English
The brazilian export behavior and the dynamics of the agroindustrial sector
Abstract in English
Since the beginning of the 1980's, the Brazilian agricultural sector has shown a standard of growth different from what prevailed in the 1970's. The exports led the process of growth stimulated by favorable international prices, financial incentives to production and investments in technological innovations. As an outcome, the agricultural sector expanded, taking advantage of the potential opportunities of the domestic market. The comprehensive reduction in the rhythm of the exports from the agricultural industrial shows up most in the traditional export commodities. Simultaneously, changes have occurred in the configuration of the export list. Greater diversification has been observed. Commodities with greater added value or greater degree of industrialization have been becoming the leaders. The objective of this research is to analyze the behavior of the exports of the Brazilian agricultural industry during the last few decades, considering the new context of the insertion of Brazil in the international market and the main factors that directed the country towards this position. The process of modification of the export list is being led, specially, by soybean meal products, chemical wood paste, orange juice, cloths, skins and hides among others. This result is made evident by the Comparative Advantage Measurements (CAM), which for these products, invariably took on increasing values. Despite the fact that this has not been a specific Brazilian phenomenon, since it is occurring in other countries, especially in Latin America countries, it is much more intensive and persistent in the Brazilian agricultural export market. The analysis of the sources of the export growth, using the Constant-Market-Share (CMS) method, revealed the importance of world trade growth and competition in the performance of the Brazilian agricultural industry exports in all of the periods dealt with. Their contributions as explanatory variables were confirmed, although the directions were opposite to what have been hypothesized. These may be associated with the different external and internal economic phenomena that were occurring along each period analyzed. The major growth stimulus in the agricultural export sector resulted directly from the dynamics of international trade and the expansion of technological capacity. Of these two, the second appears to be the most reasonable alternative in the consolidation of comparative advantages already incorporated by the traditional sector, in its application to the sectors which signal potential markets and in the exploration of new comparative advantages in niches of the highest technology.
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