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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2018.tde-01082018-160935
Document
Author
Full name
Talita Nicola Zocca Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques (President)
Lourenção, André Luiz
Mituti, Tatiana
Yuki, Valdir Atsushi
Title in Portuguese
Efeito de inseticidas no controle das transmissões primária e secundária do Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) para tomateiro por Bemisia tabaci MEAM1
Keywords in Portuguese
Solanum lycopersicum
Controle
Crinivirus
Mosca-branca
Abstract in Portuguese
Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), gênero Crinivirus, é transmitido por Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (biótipo B) de maneira semi-persistente. O tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum), quando infectado ainda jovem com o ToCV pode ter a produção reduzida. A ausência de variedades e/ou híbridos resistentes faz do controle químico do vetor a medida mais utilizada pelos produtores, porém nem sempre eficiente. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: 1. avaliar a eficiência dos inseticidas ciantraniliprole solo, flupiradifurone, cloridrato de cartape, pimetrozina e acetamiprido no controle das transmissões primária e secundária do ToCV por B. tabaci MEAM1 em tomateiro e 2. verificar o tempo que o vetor transmite o ToCV, após diferentes períodos de acesso à aquisição (PAA) do vírus em tomateiro infectado e pulverizado com pimetrozina. Para simular a infecção primária, tomateiros sadios pulverizados com cada um dos inseticidas separadamente, mais insetos virulíferos para o ToCV foram confinados em diferentes gaiolas. No caso da simulação da infecção secundária, tomateiros sadios e infectados com o ToCV, pulverizados com cada um dos inseticidas separadamente, mais insetos livres de vírus foram confinados em diferentes gaiolas. Os mesmos tratamentos foram repetidos, pulverizando-se as plantas com água, para simular os controles das infecções primária e secundária. Para avaliar o efeito do inseticida pimetrozina na longevidade da transmissão do ToCV por B. tabaci MEAM1, insetos adultos livres de vírus foram confinados em folhas de tomateiro infectadas e tratadas com o inseticida, por PAA de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 24 h. Após cada PAA, grupos de 20 insetos foram transferidos para tomateiros por um período de acesso à inoculação (PAI) de 48 h. A infecção dos tomateiros de todos os ensaios foi avaliada por RT-PCR com RNA total extraído de cada planta separadamente. Nenhum inseticida foi eficiente para controlar as simulações das transmissões primária e secundária do ToCV. As taxas de infecção de tomateiros nas simulações das infecções primária e secundária variaram de 70% a 88% e de 56% a 84%, respectivamente. As taxas de infecção dos tomateiros nos respectivos controles foram de 92% e 79%. B. tabaci transmitiu o ToCV após 24 h de confinamento em folha de tomateiro infectada e tratada com o inseticida pimetrozina para a aquisição do vírus. Tais resultados indicam que a aplicação de inseticidas de maneira isolada para o controle desta fitovirose poderá não ser eficiente, já que o vetor pode transmitir o vírus antes de ser afetado pelo inseticida.
Title in English
Effect of insecticides on the control of primary and secondary transmissions of Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) to tomato by Bemisia tabaci MEAM1
Keywords in English
Solanum lycopersicum
Control
Crinivirus
Whitefly
Abstract in English
Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), genus Crinivirus, is transmitted semipersistently by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (former biotype B). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), when infected with this crinivirus may have reduced production. In the absence of resistant varieties and/or hybrids, the chemical control of the vector is the measure most used by growers, but not always efficient. The objectives of this work were: 1. to evaluate the efficiency of the insecticides cyantraniliprole drench, flupyradifurone, cartap hydrochloride, pymetrozine and acetamiprid for the control of the primary and secondary ToCV transmissions by B. tabaci MEAM1 to tomato, and 2. to verify for how long the vector is able to transmit the ToCV to tomato, after confinement in ToCV-infected tomato sprayed with the insecticide pymetrozine for virus acquisition. To simulate the primary infection, healthy tomatoes sprayed with each of the insecticides separately, and ToCVviruliferous insects were confined in different cages. For simulating secondary infection, healthy tomatoes plants together with ToCV-infected tomato plants, sprayed with each of the insecticides separately, plus virus-free insects were confined in different cages. The same treatments were repeated by spraying the plants with water, to represent the controls of primary and secondary infections. To evaluate the effect of the insecticide pymetrozine on the longevity of ToCV transmission by B. tabaci MEAM1, virus-free adult were confined in ToCV-infected tomato leaves treated with the insecticide for the following acquisition access periods (AAP): 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h. After each AAP, groups of 20 insects were transferred to tomato plants for a 48 h inoculation access period (IAP). Infection of tomato plants from all trials was evaluated by means of RT-PCR with total RNA extracted from each of the plants separately.None of the insecticides was effective to control the simulations of the primary and secondary transmissions of ToCV. For the primary transmission, 70%, 72%, 80%, 87% and 88%, respectively, of tomatoes treated with the insecticides flupyradifurone, cyantraniliprole drench, pymetrozine, acetamiprid and cartap hydrochloride were infected, against 92% of tomato plants infected in the control. For the secondary transmission, the percentages of tomatoes plants treated with the same insecticides and infected with ToCV were 56%, 74%, 64%, 84% and 72%, against 79% of infected tomatoes in the control. B. tabaci was able to transmit ToCV to tomato plants even after 24 h of confinement in infected tomato leaves treated with the insecticide pymetrozine for virus acquisition. These results indicate that insecticide spraying alone may not be efficient for the control of the disease cause by this crinivirus, as B. tabaci can transmit the virus before being affected by the insecticide.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-08-27
 
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