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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2007.tde-02102007-142426
Document
Author
Full name
Ivan Herman Fischer
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2007
Supervisor
Committee
Amorim, Lilian (President)
Jacomino, Angelo Pedro
Massola Júnior, Nelson Sidnei
Parisi, Marise Cagnin Martins
Sposito, Marcel Bellato
Title in Portuguese
Doenças pós-colheita em citros e caracterização da população fúngica em packinghouses e na Ceagesp-SP
Keywords in Portuguese
Frutas cítricas
Mofo verde
Podridão – Doença de planta
Pós-colheita
Abstract in Portuguese
Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar os danos pós-colheita em frutos de laranja 'Valência' e de tangor 'Murcott', destinados à exportação, e em frutos de laranjas 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e de tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em packinghouse, em 2004 e 2005 e na Ceagesp-SP em 2006; identificar os pontos críticos e a magnitude de impacto em linhas de beneficiamento de citros dos packinghouses; e caracterizar a micoflora ambiental nos packinghouses e nos pontos de revenda de atacadistas da Ceagesp, assim como a micoflora da superfície de equipamentos e instalações e a presença de isolados de Penicillium spp. resistentes a fungicidas nos packinghouses. Frutos cítricos foram coletados na chegada ao packinghouse, após a pré-lavagem, após o desverdecimento, na banca, no palete e na Ceagesp, e armazenados durante 14 a 21 dias a 25°C e 85-90% de UR. A incidência de injúrias foi avaliada visualmente a cada três dias. Para a avaliação da magnitude de impactos nos pontos de transferência da linha de beneficiamento empregou-se uma esfera instrumentada com registrador de aceleração (G). A micoflora ambiental foi amostrada mediante o método gravimétrico, com placas de Petri, contendo meio batata-dextrose-ágar, abertas por dois minutos. A micoflora de superfície de equipamentos e instalações foi amostrada mediante placas Rodac. Observou-se baixa incidência (<3,5%) de podridões nos frutos destinados à exportação. As principais podridões encontradas em laranja 'Valência' e tangor 'Murcott' foram a podridão peduncular de Lasiodiplodia e a antracnose, respectivamente. Nos frutos para o mercado interno a incidência de podridões atingiu valores médios entre 12,8% e 36,2%, ao final do armazenamento, sendo o bolor verde a principal doença pós-colheita nos diferentes frutos cítricos. As injúrias mecânicas de oleocelose foram crescentes com o beneficiamento até a banca de embalagem e a aplicação de cera reduziu a incidência de frutos murchos. Na avaliação dos impactos na linha de beneficiamento do packinghouse de exportação, 95% dos impactos variaram entre 30-95 G. Já no packinghouse de mercado interno, 94% dos impactos variaram entre 24-131 G. A população fúngica no ambiente e na superfície do packinghouse de exportação foi de 12,3 e 52,3 ufc/placa, respectivamente, enquanto a população fúngica no packinghouse de mercado interno foi de 46,3 e 68,2 ufc/placa, respectivamente. Posição intermediária aos packinghouses foi observada na Ceagesp, com uma população fúngica ambiental de 25,3 ufc/placa. Cladosporium e Penicillium foram os gêneros fúngicos mais abundantes. A contaminação de "zonas limpas" nos packinghouses (lavagem dos frutos, banca, caixa e contêiner) não foi substancialmente menor que nas "zonas sujas" (recepção dos frutos e primeira seleção). A porcentagem de isolados de P. digitatum resistentes a tiabendazol foi de 25,9 no ambiente e de 30,1 na superfície do packinghouse de exportação, enquanto que para imazalil foi de 1,5 no ambiente e de 16,0 na superfície. No packinghouse de mercado interno, a porcentagem de isolados de P. digitatum resistentes a tiabendazol foi de 51,9 no ambiente e de 39,2 na superfície, enquanto que para imazalil foi de 0,1 e 0,9, respectivamente.
Title in English
Postharvest diseases in citrus and characterization of the fungal population in packinghouses and at Ceagesp-SP
Keywords in English
Citric fruit
Green mold
Plant disease
Postharvest
Rot
Abstract in English
The purposes of this work were a) to characterize postharvest injuries in 'Valência' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors aimed at the external market, and in 'Pêra', 'Lima', 'Natal' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors aimed at the internal market after different processing stages in a packinghouse in 2004 and 2005, and at Ceagesp-SP in 2006; b) to identify critical points and impact extent on processing lines in packinghouses; c) to characterize the environmental mycoflora in packinghouses and in retail points at Ceagesp; d) to characterize the superficial mycoflora of equipment and facilities, and e) to characterize the presence of isolated Penicillium spp. resistant to fungicides in packinghouses. Fruits were collected at the packinghouse, at their arrival, after pre-washing and degreening, from the packing table, from the pallet and at Ceagesp. They were stored for 14 to 21 days at 25°C and 85-90% RH. The incidence of injuries was visually evaluated every three days. An instrumented sphere with acceleration register (G) was used to evaluate the extent of impacts at the transference points of the citrus processing line. The environmental mycoflora was sampled according to the gravimetric method, using Petri dishes containing potato-dextrose-agar medium opened for two minutes. The superficial mycoflora on equipment and facilities was sampled with Rodac plates. There was low rot incidence (under 3.5%) in fruits aimed at the external market. The main disease affecting 'Valência' oranges and 'Murcott' tangors were Lasiodiplodia stem-end rot and anthracnose, respectively. Rots averaged between 12.8% and 36.2% at the end of the storage period in fruits aimed at the internal market, and green mold was the main postharvest disease. Oleocellosis increased along the processing stages until the arrival of fruits at the packing table. Wax application reduced the incidence of wilted fruits. Ninety-five percent of the impacts in the packinghouse processing line in fruits aimed at the external market ranged between 30 and 95 G, while 94% of the impacts in fruits aimed at the internal market ranged between 24 and 131 G. The environmental and the packinghouse superficial fungal population in fruits aimed at the external market were 12.3 and 52.3 cfu/plate, respectively, while these populations in fruits aimed at the internal market were 46.3 and 68.2 cfu/plate, respectively. Intermediate values in relation to packinghouses were observed at Ceagesp, where the environmental fungal population was 25.3 cfu/plate. Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most prevailing genera of fungi. The contamination of "clean zones" in the packinghouses (washing of fruits, packing table, boxes and containers) was not substantially lower than contamination in "dirty zones" (reception of fruits and first selection). The percentage of P. digitatum isolates resistant to thiabendazole was 25.9 in the environment and 30.1 on the packinghouse surface for fruits aimed at the external market, while the corresponding data concerning isolates resistant to imazalil were 1.5 and 16.0, respectively. In the packinghouse of fruits aimed at the internal market, the percentage of isolates of P. digitatum resistant to thiabendazole was 51.9 in the environment and 39.2 on the packinghouse surface, while the corresponding data concerning isolates resistant to imazalil were 0.1 and 0.9, respectively.
 
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Publishing Date
2007-10-08
 
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