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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.1982.tde-20220207-200522
Document
Author
Full name
Hilário Antônio de Castro
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1982
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Podridão de cerne de árvores vivas de Eucalyptus na região de Guaíba, RS: ocorrência e etiologia
Keywords in Portuguese
EUCALIPTO
FUNGOS FITOPATOGÊNICOS
PODRIDÃO DO CERNE
Abstract in Portuguese
Foi avaliada a incidência de uma podridão branca de cerne em árvores vivas de quatro espécies de Eucalyptus Lhéritier, com maior ênfase a E. grandis Hill ex Maiden e E. saligna Sm, em quatro locais da região de Guaíba, RS. As árvores amostradas por espécie e local, foram derrubadas e seccionadas para constatação ou não de apodrecimento. Evidenciou-se variação na incidência de apodrecimento nos diferentes locais e espécies. A incidência média foi de 49% nas árvores examinadas e E. grandis foi a espécie na qual houve maior incidência (61%). Em E. saligna a incidência foi de 40%. A maior incidência por local foi de 85%. Os microorganismos associados ao problema foram determinados através da constatação de basidiocarpos nas árvores vivas e por isolamento a partir de material coletado durante a avaliação da incidência. Os himenomicetos foram descritos com base em suas características culturais. Apenas em uma árvore de E. saligna constatou-se a presença de basidiocarpos de Inonotus rheades (Pers.) Pilat. Vinte prováveis himenomicetos, nove dos quais possuindo grampos de conexão, foram isolados da madeira coletada. Além destes apenas Deuteromicetos e Ascomicetos ocorreram no isolamento. Inóculo constituído de grãos de arroz em casca colonizados com os fungos foi introduzido até o centro do cerne de árvores sadias, tapando-se os buracos com algodão e vedando com fita adesiva. Após 115 dias da inoculação efetuou-se a avaliação do apodrecimento nas três espécies de Eucalyptus testadas, tendo um deles apresentado maior agressividade do que o outro. E. grandis apresentou menor resistência ao apodrecimento. Verificou-se que a principal via de penetração dos organismos causais da podridão dentro das árvores são os galhos mortos, ou seus restos aderidos às árvores.
Title in English
Heart rot in living trees of Eucalyptus in the Guaíba region, RS: occurrence and etiology
Abstract in English
The incidence of a white heart rot in living trees of four Eucalyptus L'héritier species was evaluated in four sites within the Guaíba region, RS. Emphasis was given to stands of E. grandis Hill ex Maiden and E. saligna Sm. Trees were fallen and seccioned for internal decay evaluation. The incidence of decay among individual trees varied according to the site and the eucalyptus species. Forty nine percent of the trees examined showed heart rot, E. grandis being the species with the greatest incidence (61%). E. saligna showed an incidence of 40%. The greatest incidence per site was 85%. Microorganisms associated with the problem were determined by the examination of basidiocarps formed in the living trees and by isolation from material collected during the incidence evaluation. Himenomycetes were described according to their cultural characteristics. The presence of basidiocarps was detected only in one tree of E. saligna. These fruiting bodies pertained to the species Inonotus rheades (Pers.) Pilat. Twenty supposed Himenomycetes were isolated from the decayed wood, 9 of them having clamp connections. Several Deuteromycetes and Ascomycetes were also isolated. Three Hymenomycetes isolated were artificially inoculated into living trees of E. saligna, E. grandis and E. urophylla. Inoculum consisted of rice grains colonized by the fungi in glass jars. Inoculation was performed by introducing the inoculum into cillindrical holes done in the trunk of healthy trees, closing the opening of the holes with cotton and adhesive tape. Evaluation was performed 115 days after inoculation. Two of the Hymenomycetes tested caused decay in the those Eucalyptus species tested, one of them being more aggressive than the other. E. grandis was the most susceptible species. The principal mode of penetration of the causal organisms into the heartwood of the trees was observed to be through the branch stubs or dead branches.
 
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Publishing Date
2022-02-07
 
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