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Master's Dissertation
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Percy Antonio Gerardo Salas Pino
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1996
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Efeito de adjuvantes, volume de calda e qualidade da água na eficácia do herbicida Glyphosate
Keywords in Portuguese
ADJUVANTES
ÁGUA
CALDA
HERBICIDAS EXPERIMENTOS
Abstract in Portuguese
No presente trabalho foram conduzidos quatro experimentos para avaliar os efeitos de adjuvantes, volumes de calda, qualidade das águas de diferentes fontes e concentração de sais, na eficácia do herbicida glyphosate. Os adjuvantes testados foram sulfato de amônio, fosfato monoamônico, uréia e surfactante (mistura de isooctil fenóxi polietóxi etanol e dioctil sulfonato de sódio). Os ensaios foram realizados nas instalações do Departamento de Horticultura da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba - SP, Brasil. Os experimentos sobre o efeito dos adjuvantes e volumes da água, foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação, usando como planta teste a tiririca (Cyperus rotundus L.), sendo que os experimentos sobre o efeito dos sais e fontes de água foram conduzidas em ambiente não protegido, usando sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor L.). Verificou-se que o sulfato de amônio (2% p/v) aumentou significativamente o controle da planta aos 75 dias após a aplicação do herbicida, sendo possível reduzir a dose de 1,44 kg e.a./ha pela metade com a mesma eficácia. A uréia (2,00% p/v) também foi muito eficiente e permitiu reduzir a dose maior de glyphosate pela metade, sem perder a eficácia. Entretanto, o fosfato monoamônico não causou aumentos significativos e o surfactante reduziu a eficácia, sobretudo das doses mais baixas do herbicida. A redução do volume da calda de 300 para 150 l/ha aumentou a eficácia da dose mais baixa do glyphosate (0,36 kg e.a.lha). Os sais de cloreto de cálcio, cloreto de magnésio, bicarbonato de sódio, sulfato ferroso e sulfato de zinco reduziram significativamente a eficácia do glyphosate. O sulfato de amônio e o fosfato monoamônico superaram o efeito antagônico dos sais, com exceção do sulfato ferroso. Das fontes de água testadas, somente a água subterrânea diminuiu significativamente a eficácia do glyphosate, devido a alta concentração de sais, especialmente de cálcio e sódio.
Title in English
Adjuvants, spray volume and water quality effects on Glyphosate herbicide efficacy
Abstract in English
This research was carried out by four experiments in order to evaluate the effects of adjuvants, volume and source of water used in the spray dilution and salt concentration on glyphosate herbicide efficacy. The tested adjuvants were ammonium sulfate, monoamonic phosphate, urea and surfactant (mixture of ethanol polietoxy phenoxy isooctyl and sodium solfonate dioctyl). The experiments were conducted at the Department of Horticulture facilities of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba - SP, Brazil. The assays, about the adjuvant effects and spray volume effects, were conducted in a greenhouse, with the weed Cyperus rotundus L., and the experiments salt effects and water sources were conducted outside under natural conditions, using sorghum. It was observed that ammonium sulfate (2% w/v) increased significant1y the weed control by glyphosate 75 daysafter application (DAA), allowing a rate reduction to half of the higher rate (1.44 kg a.e./ha), with the same efficacy. Urea (2.00% w/v) was also very efficient and allowed a rate reduction of the higher dosage (1.44 kg e.a./ha) to half, keeping the efficacy. However, the monoamonic phosphate did not increase glyphosate efficacy significantly, and the surfactant reduced the efficacy, specially at lower herbicide rates. The spray volume reduction from 300 to 150 l/ha increased the efficacy of the lower glyphosate rate (0.36 kg a.e./ha). The salts sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate and zinc sulfate reduced significantly glyphosate efficacy. The ammonium sulfate and monoamonic phosphate did not allow the antagonic salt effects, except for iron sulfate. From the water sources tested only one underground water reduced significantly glyphosate efficacy due to high salt concentration, specially calcium and sodium salts.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-11-08
 
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