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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.2019.tde-20191218-130335
Document
Author
Full name
Gerson Augusto Gelmini
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1996
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Controle químico do aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) e da alface-d'água (Pistia stratiotes L.)
Keywords in Portuguese
AGUAPÉ
ALFACE D'AGUA
HERBICIDAS
Abstract in Portuguese
(Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) e da alface-d'água (Pistia stratiotes L.) são espécies vegetais flutuantes livres comuns em ambientes aquáticos. Devido à grande capacidade reprodutiva, podem causar efeitos indesejáveis caso não sejam remanejadas adequadamente. Para verificar o comportamento dessas plantas sob ação de diferentes doses do herbicida glufosinato de amônio (0,8; 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 kg ia/ha) em comparação ao glyphosate (3,89 kg ia/ha) e 2,4-D (3,35 kg ia/ha) aplicados em diversas épocas associados à surfactante, foram conduzidos vários experimentos independentes em Cosmópolis (SP).Utilizou-se como suporte, caixas de cimento-amianto com substrato e plantas coletados em represa localizada na região de Americana, SP. No aguapé as aplicações foram efetuadas na vegetação onde o peso da biomassa por unidade de área e a altura das plantas eram de respectivamente 2 kg/m2 e 5-10 cm; 2 kg/m2 e 15-30 cm; 7 kg/m2 e 5-10 cm; 9 kg/m2 e 10-15 cm; 12 kg/m2 e 15-30 cm. Na alface-d'água as aplicações foram feitas na vegetação onde o peso da biomassa por unidade de área e o diâmetro das plantas eram respectivamente 2,5 e 5-10; 2,5 kg/m2 e 5-10 cm; 2,5 kg/m e 10-15 cm; 5 kg/m2 e 5-10 cm; 5 kg/m2 e 10-15 cm e 7 kg/m2 e 15-20 cm. Foram avaliados o controle da biomassa com base na parte aérea cima da superfície da água através da escala visual da ALAM, bem como o crescimento e recuperação da mesma durante 50 dias pós a aplicação (DAA). Todos os herbicidas provocaram a morte de aguapé quando aplicados na vegetação com 2 kg/m2. Em plantas com 5-10 cm isso ocorreu aos 28 DAA nos tratamentos com glyphosate, 2,4-D e glufosinato de amônio nas duas doses maiores doses e aos 42 DAA para o glufosinato de amônio nas duas menores doses. Em plantas com 15-30 cm, apenas glyphosate aos 50 DAA e 2,4-D aos 42 DAA causaram a morte da vegetação. A alface-d'água somente foi totalmente controlada à partir de, 28 DAA pelo glufosinato de amônio e ghyphosate, quando aplicados na vegetação com 2,5 kg/m2. Isso ocorreu em plantas com 5-10 cm para os dois herbicidas e com 1-15, apenas para o glyphosate. Nas demais situações e para as duas plantas, os herbicidas reduziram a velocidade de crescimento da biomassa fresca, principalmente à partir de 28 DAA, onde os valores variaram de acordo com a época e a dose em que foram aplicados.
Title in English
Chemical control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.)
Abstract in English
Water hyacinth and the water lettuce are free floating species widely found in aquatic environment. If not properly managed these plants may cause undersirable effects as consequence of their great reproductive capacity. Independent experiments took place in Cosmopolis (SP). Such experiments aimed to study the behaviour of these plants when submited to the action of different rates of glufosinate-ammonium (0.8; 1.0; 1.2; 1.4 kg/ha a.i.), compared to glyphosate (3.89 kg/ha a.i.) and 2,4-D (3.35 kg/ha a.i.) wich were associated with surfactants and applied in several occasions. Boxes made of cement and asbestos with substract and plants collected from a dam located in the region of Americana (SP) were used as support medium. Herbicides were sprayed in water hyacinth shoots when the biomass weight per unit of area and the size of the pIants were: 2 kg/m2 (5-10 and 15-30 cm); 7 kg/m2 (5-10 cm); 9 kg/m2 (10-15 cm) and 12 kgm2 (15-30 cm) respectively. In the water Iettuce the biomass wright and pIant size were 2,5 kg/m2 (5-10 and 10-15 cm); 5 kg/m2 (5-10 and 10-15 cm) and 7 kg/m2 (15-20 cm) respectiveIy for the biomass weight of per unit of area and the diameter of the pIant. During 50 days after applications (DAA) the weed controI evaluated the portion above the water surfaee using a visual device. The evoIution of the shoot biomass was measured as well. The water hyacinth was eliminated by the three herbicides when applied to the weeds with the density of 2 kg/m2 as follows: at 28 DAA in pIants with 5-10 em and at 42 DAA for the two Iarger rates of the glufosinate-ammonium. In the case of pIants with 15-30 cm the death of the weeds was achieved by glyphosate at 50 DAA and 2,4-D at 42 DAA. For the vegetabIes with 2.5 kg/m2, the water lettuce was eliminated only by the glufosinate-ammonium and glyphosate after 28 DAA. This happened in pIants with 5-10 cm for both herbicides and for pIants with 10-15 em for glyphosate. In other cases and for both pIants the herbicides reduced the growth rate ofthe vegetabIe biomass, specially at 28 DAA, when the results varied according to the application time or herbicide rate. The control leveIs found for both species were influenced by the pIant size and biomass weight at the momment of applieation. For pIants of equal size the best results were achieved with the ones with less weight. In the case of plants with the same weight the best results were found in the smaller ones.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-12-19
 
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