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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2019.tde-20191220-112803
Document
Author
Full name
Eduardo Antonio Bulisani
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1994
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Crescimento e absorção de nutrientes em cinco cultivares de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Keywords in Portuguese
ABSORÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES
CRESCIMENTO
FEIJÃO
VARIEDADES VEGETAIS
Abstract in Portuguese
Foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos com solo experimento para avaliar o crescimento e a absorção de N, P, K, Ca e Mg em bico de ouro, carioca, goiano precoce, rico 23 e rosinha G2. As raízes foram os primeiros órgãos a parar de crescer seguidas pelas hastes e depois pelas folhas. As sementes mostraram intenso acúmulo de matéria seca nos últimos 20 dias do ciclo das plantas. Número vagens/vaso, de sementes/vagem e a massa das sementes não foram suficientes para explicar as diferenças observadas na produção de grãos também o índice de colheita é fator relevante na comparação de materiais de ciclo semelhantes. A produção estimada de grãos em kg/ha foi de 2807 para carioca, 2690 para bico de ouro, 2615 para rico 23, 2436 para rosinha G2 e 1090 para goiano precoce que diferiu significativamente dos demais. Nitrogênio, potássio, cálcio, magnésio e fósforo. Foi a ordem decrescente de acúmulo de nutrientes sendo a matéria seca a grande determinante da quantidade de nutrientes absorvida. Entre 50 e 80% do nitrogênio e 66 e 86% do fósforo absorvidos são exportados pelas sementes. Os valores para potássio variaram entre 26 e 50% para magnésio entre 28 e 38% e entre 9 e 17% para cálcio dependendo do cultivar. Goiano precoce foi o cultivar que apresentou os mais baixos índices entre quantidade exportada e quantidade absorvida
Title in English
Growth and nutrient uptake in five dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars
Abstract in English
From june to september, it was carried out an experiment under glasshouse condition in pots with soil in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, with the aim of evaluating the growth and N, P, K, Ca e Mg uptake in 'Bico de Ouro', 'Carioca', 'Goiano Precoce', 'Rico 23' and 'Rosinha G2' dry bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). At ten day intervals plants were harvested, separated into roots, shoots, leaves, flowers, pods and seeds, evaluated for dry matter production, other growth parameters and nutrient content. Roots had their growth reduced before other plant parts, around the 40th day after germination, followed by shoots and leaves. Soon after flowering shoots worked as intermediate sink for the carbohydrates. Seeds showed a fast increase of dry matter accumulation in the last twenty days of life span. At a ten day interval, cultivars of similar cycle, were not in the same physiological growth stadium, so comparisons among them have to consider this fact. Cultivar 'Bico de Ouro' flowered in a few days and accumulated seed dry matter earlier than others with the same cycle, meanwhile 'Rico 23' showed higher accumulation in the last ten days. Yield components as pods/pot, seeds/pod and seed weight showed large variation among tested cultivars but they alone were not enough to explain grain yield differences. Harvest indexes, which varied from 50% in 'Goiano Precoce' to 66% in 'Bico de Ouro', also should be taken into account in comparisons of similar growth habit materials. The estimated grain yield in kg/ha was of 2.807 for 'Carioca', 2.690 for 'Bico de Ouro', 2.615 for 'Rico 23', 2.436 for 'Rosinha G2' and 1.090 for 'Goiano Precoce'. Only this last one yielded significantly less than the others. Nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus was the decreasing order of nutrient uptake. Within plant parts nutrient content was quite similar among the bean cultivars being dry matter production the determinant factor in nutrient accumulation. About 50 to 80% of the nitrogen and from 66 to 86% of the absorbed phosphorus were exported by the seeds. Values for potassium varied from 26 to 50%; for magnesium, from 28 to 38% and from 9 to 17% for calcium depending upon cultivar. It should be noted the high variation among cultivars, showing wide differences in relation to each nutrient. As it was observed for harvest index, nutrient uptake in 'Goiano Precoce' showed the lowest values for the relation nutrient in the seed to nutrient in the plant, thus showing lower efficiency in translocation for both dry matter and nutrients
 
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Publishing Date
2019-12-20
 
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