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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2019.tde-20191220-133142
Document
Author
Full name
Mauro Sakai
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1997
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Adubação NPK, do chazeiro (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), em latossolo amarelo álico, no Vale do Ribeira – SP
Keywords in Portuguese
ADUBAÇÃO
CHÁ
FERTILIZANTES NPK
LATOSSOLO AMARELO ÁLICO
Abstract in Portuguese
A teicultura é uma das principais atividades agrícolas do Vale do Ribeira, no Estado de São /SP, e tem na adubação um sério problema em virtude de não existirem dados de pesquisa sobre o assunto no País. As recomendações atualmente existentes são baseadas em trabalhos realizados em outros países, e na estimativa de exportação de nutrientes através da análise foliar. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho foi planejado e conduzido com o objetivo de estudar as respostas do chazeiro à adubação com NPK, em Latossolo Amarelo Álico, na produção de folhas vermelhas de chá e nos teores desses nutrientes na folha, com a finalidade de se obter informações que possibilitem o uso mais eficiente de fertilizantes, com aumento na produção. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o fatorial ½ de 4x4x4, dividido em dois blocos. O cultivar utilizado foi o ‘IAC 259’, plantado em 1974, a uma densidade de 7400 plantas/ha, no espaçamento de 1,8 x 0,75 m. A parcela experimental era constituída de 5 linhas de 10 m de comprimento, com um total de 65 plantas/canteiro. Os tratamentos consistiram nas aplicações de adubos nitrogenado, fosfatado e potássico nas dosagens de 125, 250, 375 e 500 kg de N/ha, 80, 160, 240 e 320 kg de P2O5/ha, e 80,160, 240 e 320 kg de K 2O/ha, totalizando 32 combinações de NPK, que foram aplicadas em 3 vezes. O chazeiro respondeu positivamente apenas à adubação nitrogenada, de forma linear, até a dose de 375 kg de N/ha. O nitrogênio além de aumentar a produção alterou as características químicas do solo, principalmente o pH e os teores de K, Ca e Mg, que diminuíram. Na folha, a aplicação de doses crescentes de N, aumentou a concentração de N e diminuiu as de P, K, Ca e Mg. A adubação fosfatada apesar de aumentar a disponibilidade de P à planta, não influenciou a produção de folhas verdes do chazeiro e nem o seu teor nas folhas. A medida que se aplicou maior quantidade de P no solo ocorreu tendência para a diminuição da concentração de Zn nas folhas. A produção foi afetada pela adubação potássica de forma negativa, principalmente na safra de 1992/93. No solo, o potássio tornou-se mais disponível com o aumento nas doses aplicadas, e em consequência ocorreu o aumento do seu teor nas folhas
Title in English
The NPK manuring of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) o. Kuntze), in a yellow latossol, at Ribeira Valley, SP.
Abstract in English
Tea cultivation is one of Ribeira Valley's most important agricultural activity, and the manuring has been identified as the indispensable operation for obtaing increased yields and economic retums. In this context, the present work was carried out to study the responses of tea yield to NPK fertilization in a Y ellow Latossol, at Ribeira Valley, in the State of São Paulo. The experiment was set out in commercial gardens, in the form of ½ (4 x 4 x 4 ) factorial design, with two blocks. The clone of tea was "IAC 259" planted in 1974, at planting density of 1,80 m x 0,75 m., making a total of 7400 plants per hectare and each effective plot consisted of 65 plants.The treatments consisted of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium aplication at the rates of 125, 250, 3 75 and 500 kg of N/ha; 80, 160, 240 and 320 kg of P2O5/ha; and 80, 160, 240 and 320 kg of K2O/ha., to give 32 combinations of NPK in the soil. From October 1989 to June 1993, at each plucking round, the weight of leaf produced was recorded. Throughout the period, plucking standard was maintained at the normal commercial practice consisting mainly of two leaves and bud. Soil analysis were carried out in January 1990 and 1992 and leaf analysis were also made. The results showed that tea yields responses a nitrogen aplication, but the effects of phosphate and potash fertilizers were not clear. The response of nitrogen was linear up to 375 kg N/ha. The nitrogen acidifies the soil and pH has been reduced. The base availabilities of the soil, Iike K, Ca and Mg also have been reduced with increasing application levels of nitrogen. The nitrogen content of the leaf increased with increasing N rates, but de P, K, Ca and Mg decreased. The phosphate application increased the P available in soil solution, but the yield and leaf content were not affected, but the Zn content was decreased. The amount of potassium in leaf samples and the K available in the soil were changed by application of potash fertilizer, but the leaf production were decreased by increasing the rate of potassium fertilizer in the last year.
 
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2019-12-20
 
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