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Thèse de Doctorat
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2020.tde-20200111-132649
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Josefa Diva Nogueira Diniz
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
Piracicaba, 1996
Directeur
Titre en portugais
Crescimento e absorção mineral em explantes de bananeira (Musa sp AAB), cv. Prata Anã, in vitro
Mots-clés en portugais
ABSORÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES
BANANA PRATA ANÃ
CRESCIMENTO VEGETAL
CULTIVO IN VITRO
EXPLANTES
Resumé en portugais
Foi estudada in vitro a absorção de nutrientes minerais por explantes de bananeira, cv. Prata Anã, em função do período de tempo de cultivo, visando fornecer subsídios para ajuste do meio de cultura e estabelecimento do melhor período de repicagem. O cultiva do de gemas apicais foi realizado em meio semi-sólido contendo macro, micronutrientes e vitaminas de Murashige & Skoog (1962), durante 60 dias . Foram utilizados sete tratamentos representados pelos períodos de 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias de cultivo, com três repetições, avaliando-se nos propágulos os seguintes parâmetros: altura das plantas, número de gemas, número de raízes do pH do meio durante o preparo e durante o cultivo. No rizoma, pseudocaule, folhas e nos propágulos inteiros, também , foram avaliadas as massas da matéria fresca e seca, os teores de micronutrientes (N,P,K, Ca, Mg e S); teores de micronutrientes (B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn) e as quantidades de nutrientes absorvidas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, observou-se que as massas da matéria fresca e seca e o crescimento em altura dos propágulos aumentaram até os 60 dias, sendo este aumento maior nos primeiros 10 dias, enquanto que, o número de folhas e gemas até os 30 dias, data em que se estabilizou e o número de propágulos com raízes começou a aumentar significativamente. O pH do meio de cultura variou durante o preparo após a adição do ágar, aquecimento e esterilização em autoclave. Com a inoculação dos explantes, o pH decresceu de 5,61 para 4,0 aos cinco dias, permanecendo estável até os 60 dias de cultivo. Em todos os nutrientes observou-se que a maior taxa de absorção ocorreu durante os primeiros 20 dias de cultivo, com exceção do Mn, cuja absorção permaneceu constante durante todo o cultivo. Exceto par o P, as quantidades de nutrientes fornecidas pelo meio de cultivo foram suficientes para suprir as exigências da cultura. O P foi o nutriente mais rapidamente absorvido pelos propágulos, extraindo 75% do inicial do meio, aos 30 dias de cultivo, cessando sua absorção aos 50 dias, com 9% remanescente no meio. Todos os micronutrientes foram fornecidos em quantidades suficientes para o desenvolvimento dos propágulos, no entanto, com base nas quantidades de Zn, Mn, Cu e B (58,5, 77,3, 78,4 e 49,7%, respectivamente) remanescentes no meio, pode-se afirmar que os mesmos estavam em excesso. Para o cultivo in vitro de explantes de bananeira no meio MS, a proporção de P pode ser duplicada, enquanto que as concentrações dos micronutrientes: Zn, Mn, Cu e B, podem ser reduzidas, para a obtenção de maiores taxas de crescimento por períodos mais longos. Os propágulos desenvolvidos no meio MS apresentaram bom desenvolvimento em altura, número de folhas e gemas, com poucas raízes e boas condições nutricionais aos 30 dias, indicando que o período recomendável para a realização da repicagem deve ser em torno dessa data.
Titre en anglais
Growth and mineral absorption in banana (Musa sp. AAB) cv. “Prata An㔠explants in vitro
Resumé en anglais
In vitro, growth and mineral nutrients absorption studies, taking in account cultivation time, with banana cv. “Prata Anã”, were developed to provide information to adjust the artificial medium in order to establish the best explantation time for this cultivar. The cultivation was carried out in a Murashige and Skoog’s semi-solid medium for 60 days. The experimental units were submitted to seven treatments, replicated three times, made up of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60-day of cultivation periods. The following parameters were evaluated: visual symptoms of deficiency and/or toxicity, plant heights, bud numbers, root numbers, medium pH during the preparation and through the plant cultivation. Fresh and dried matter weight, macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S), micronutrients (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) as well as the amount of nutrients absorbed by the rhizome, pseudotrunk, leaves and full explants were also assessed. Fresh and dried matter weights and explant heights have increased up to the 60 th cultivation day. The highest increments were observed for the first ten days of cultivation. In respect to the number of leaves and number of buds, they have increased up to 30 th cultivation day and reached the stabilization. By this cultivation day (30 th), the number of explants with roots have significantly expanded. The medium pH has fluctuated during the preparation and agar adding, heating and autoclave sterilization. When the explants were inoculated the medium pH changed from 5,61 to 4,00 and remained to the lowest value up to the 5 th cultivation day. This condition was sustained up to the 60 th day. Except to Mn which has exihibited a constant absorption level throughout the bioassay, all nutrients have depicted the highest absorption rate during the first 20 days of cultivation. All nutrients supplied by the medium were adequate to match the plant requirements. However, P was the nutrient with the fastest absorption rate by the explants. Seventy-five percent of this element was extracted from the medium up to the 30 th cultivation day. Its absorption was stopped by the 50th day with 9% of it remaining in the medium. All micronutrients were sufficient to promote the explants' growth. Nevertheless, the remanent amounts in the medium have indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu and B (58,5, 77,3, 78,4 and 49, 7%, respectively) were in excess. The data support the reasoning that in vitro banana explants cultivation, in MS medium, the amount of phosphorus must be duplicated. On the other hand , the concentrations of the micronutrients, v. g., Zn, Mn, Cu and B could be reduced in order to allow higher rates of growth for more extended period of cultivation. The explants which have grown in MS medium have exhibited development in terms of height, number of leaves and buds, few roots and proper nutritional conditions up to the 30 th cultivation day. Consequently, it is advisable to keep this time period as the best suggestion for banana cv. “Prata An㔠explantation.
 
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Date de Publication
2020-01-11
 
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