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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2019.tde-21012019-142759
Document
Author
Full name
Mariana Freire Alberti
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Silva, Simone Rodrigues da (President)
Almeida, Marcilio de
Avilés, Tatiana Eugenia Cantuarias
Sampaio, Aloisio Costa
Title in Portuguese
Florescimento de gemas axilares em abacateiros não irrigados cultivados em clima subtropical
Keywords in Portuguese
Persea americana Mill
Diferenciação floral
Floração
Fluxos de crescimento
Abstract in Portuguese
O abacateiro (Persea americana Mill.) possui desenvolvimento organizado em fluxos de crescimento e florescimento em panículas, provenientes principalmente de gemas terminais, podendo ocorrer em menor intensidade a partir de gemas axilares. Dessa forma, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade de florescimento e a presença de substâncias ergásticas nas células de gemas axilares, bem como determinar a contribuição dos fluxos de crescimento de primavera e verão para a composição floral dos abacateiros 'Geada', 'Fortuna', Quintal', 'Margarida' e 'Hass', localizados no sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado e por meio da contagem do número de brotações e inflorescências, o acompanhamento do desenvolvimento vegetativo e reprodutivo foi feito em 40 ramos do fluxo de primavera e 40 ramos do fluxo de verão, distribuídos em cinco plantas por cultivar, no período de março a agosto/2016. A capacidade de florescimento de gemas axilares foi avaliada em estruturas coletadas mensalmente entre março e julho de 2016 nos ramos dos fluxos de primavera e verão, sendo as alterações anatômicas do meristema e a presença de substâncias ergásticas (amido, proteínas totais, compostos fenólicos e polissacarídeos) monitoradas a partir de testes histológicos e histoquímicos. Para as análises histológicas, as amostras vegetais foram desidratadas em série gradual de álcoois, emblocados em historesina e coradas em coloração dupla com reagente ácido periódico de Schiff e Naftol Blue Black. O florescimento de todas as cultivares ocorreu no mês de agosto/2016 e a formação de inflorescências foi predominante em ramos provenientes do fluxo de verão para todas as cultivares. Os resultados evidenciam a capacidade de florescimento de gemas axilares dos abacateiros, as quais são anatomicamente idênticas às gemas terminais e apresentaram início do comprometimento com o florescimento, caracterizada pelo aparecimento dos eixos secundários da inflorescência, dois meses antes (entre maio e julho) da época de floração (agosto/setembro).
Title in English
Flowering of axillary buds in non-irrigated avocados grown under subtropical climate
Keywords in English
Persea americana Mill.
Ergastic substance
Floral differentiation
Flowering
Growth fluxes
Meristem
Abstract in English
Avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.) has an organized development in fluxes of growth and flowering in panicles, mainly coming from terminal buds, and may occur in less intensity from axillary buds. Thus, the present study had as objective the evaluation of the flowering potential and presence of ergastic substances in axillary buds, as well as to determine the contribution of the spring and summer fluxes growth to the floral composition of the avocado trees 'Geada', 'Fortuna' , Quintal ',' Margarida 'and' Hass', located in the southwest of São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized and the vegetative and reproductive development was monitored in 40 branches of the spring flux and 40 branches of the summer flux by counting the number of shoots and inflorescences, distributed in five plants per cultivar, in the period from March to August / 2016. The flowering capacity of axillary buds was evaluated in monthly collected structures between March and July of 2016 in the branches of spring and summer fluxes, being the anatomical alterations of the meristem and the presence of ergastic substances (starch, total proteins, phenolic compounds and polysaccharides) monitored from histological and histochemical analyses. For the histological analyzes, the plant samples were dehydrated in a gradual series of alcohols, placed in historesin and stained in double staining with periodic acid reagents of Schiff and Naftol Blue Black. The flowering of all cultivars occurred in August / 2016 and inflorescence formation was more significant in branches from the summer flow for all cultivars. The results showed the flowering ability of axillary buds of the avocado trees, which are anatomically identical to the terminal buds and showed the beginning of the flowering, characterized by the appearance of the secondary axes of the inflorescence two months before (between May and July) of flowering (August / September).
 
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Publishing Date
2019-01-23
 
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