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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2010.tde-19042010-105815
Document
Author
Full name
Bertha Dévora Agurto Berdejo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes de (President)
Bandel, Gerhard
Ferreira, Renato Rodrigues
Medici, Leonardo Oliveira
Silva, Marcio José da
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização das proteínas de reserva em linhagem QPM e estudo bioquímico da enzima homoserina quinase (HK) em sementes de milho (Zea mays L.)
Keywords in Portuguese
Aminoácidos
Enzimas
Linhagens vegetais
Milho
Proteínas de plantas
Sementes.
Abstract in Portuguese
A semente de milho, base da alimentação em muitos países na África, Ásia e América Latina, possui ~10% de proteína na semente. Por ser um cereal a proteína da semente de milho apresenta uma baixa concentração de aminoácidos essenciais como: lisina e triptofano. Com a descoberta do milho opaco-2, o qual apresenta um maior teor de lisina e triptofano em suas sementes, surgiu a oportunidade de se desenvolver milhos com qualidade protéica, aumentando o conteúdo de aminoácidos e a qualidade nutricional dos grãos. Assim, surgiu o milho QPM (quality protein maize), milho de alta qualidade protéica, melhorado pelo CIMMYT (México). O QPM possui duas vezes mais lisina que o milho normal mantendo a sua produtividade equivalente. A EMBRAPA, Milho e Sorgo, desenvolveu duas variedades QPM comercializadas: BR451 e BR473. A linhagem QPM 161 (EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo) teve suas proteínas de reserva analisadas bioquimicamente neste trabalho, concluindo que o QPM 161, possui uma concentração maior de lisina em suas sementes, chegando a superar o BR 451 e a manter a mesma concentração de lisina que o BR 473. Em outra parte do trabalho, sementes imaturas (14, 20 e 14 DAP) das linhagens 161, assim como as do selvagem W22+ e de seus mutantes W22o10, W22o11 e W22o13, foram utilizadas para caracterizar a enzima homoserina quinase (HK). A HK faz parte da via de biossíntese do aminoácido essencial treonina. Constatou-se que uma alta atividade desta enzima está relacionada ao aumento de treonina na semente, porém, a alta atividade de HK foi observada nos menores estágios de maturação. Assim os resultados mostram que mais estudos sobre a regulação desta enzima devem ser realizados para que se possam desenvolver sementes ricas em lisina e também em treonina.
Title in English
Characterization of storage protein in QPM lines and biochemical study of homoserine kinase enzyme, in maize seeds (Zea mays L.)
Keywords in English
Homoserine kinse
Lysine
Maize
Opaque-2
QPM
Threonine
Abstract in English
Maize which is the staple food in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, has ~10% of protein in the seeds. Maize seeds protein presents low contents of essential amino acids, such as lysine and tryptophan. Since the discovery of the opaque-2 maize, a recessive mutation that results in high concentrations of lysine and tryptophan, the major challenge has been to develop better quality protein maize to increase the rate of amino acids consumed by population. The QPM (quality protein maize), originally produced and breeded at CIMMYT in Mexico, came to solve the issue. The QPM protein has twice as much lysine and tryptophan, with the same yield of normal maize. The EMBRAPA, Maize and Sorghum, has bred two QPM varieties that are already commercialized (BR 451 and BR 473), but to increase the quality of the Brazilian QPM, EMBRAPA developed a new QPM line, the 161, whose storage proteins were biochemically analyzed in this study. Line 161 exhibited a higher lysine concentration than BR 451, but about the same concentration of that exhibited by BR 473. Further analyses conducted in this research involved the study of immature seeds (14, 20 and 24 DAP) of line 161, and the wild-type W22+ and its counterpart mutants W22o10, W22o11 and W22o13, and the characterization of the enzyme homoserine kinase (HK). HK is a key enzyme of the threonine biosynthetic pathway. The high HK activity was shown to be related to the increased threonine concentration in the maize seeds. HK activity was shown to reach the highest level in the first developmental stage, whereas in the last developmental stage the activity is lower and so is the rate of threonine. Therefore, it is necessary more studies on HK regulation to improve the mature maize seeds with the best rate of lysine and threonine.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-04-29
 
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