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Master's Dissertation
Full name
Luciana Aparecida Carlini
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Piracicaba, 1996
Title in Portuguese
Estudo dos padrões de variabilidade intra e interespecífica em Miltonia LDL. (Orchidaceae)
Keywords in Portuguese

Abstract in Portuguese
Foram avaliados os padrões de variabilidade intra e interespecífica no gênero Miltonia (Orchidaceae). Sete espécies foram consideradas: Miltonia anceps (LdI.), M. clowesii LdI., M. cuneata LdI., M. flavescens (LdI.), M. regnellii Reichenbach (f.), M. russeliana (LdI.), M. spectabilis LdI., e M. spectabilis var. moreliana Henfrey. Para tanto foram feitas análises de variância para todos os caracteres e análise de correlação entre todos os pares de caracteres entre os oito grupos taxonômicos estudados. Foram também aplicadas análises multivariadas entre todos os taxa e dentro de espécies que possuíssem mais de uma população, cujo tamanho fosse maior ou igual a seis indivíduos. As técnicas multivariadas utilizadas foram: distância generalizada de Mahalanobis, análise discriminante canônica, análise de agrupamento (métodos UPGMA e vizinho mais próximo) e funções discriminantes. Também foram considerados dados biogeográficos e dados de fenologia nos níveis intra e interespecíficos. Os resultados obtidos foram concordantes com a taxonomia tradicional, exceto pelo fato de que sugere-se que M. spectabilis var. moreliana seja elevada ao nível de espécie, como proposto anteriormente por outros autores. Há variação clinal no sentido Norte-Sul entre as populações de M. flavescens, sendo que a população de Juçari-BA deve ser considerada uma raça. Também há variação clinal no sentido Norte-Sul entre as populações de M. spectabilis, sendo que a população de Cascata-RJ é uma raça. As duas populações de M. regnelli consideradas na análise intraespecífica constituem raças de espécie. Concluiu-se também que diferenças de época de florescimento dificultam cruzamentos intra e interespecíficos, contribuindo para a diferenciação entre os taxa. Finalmente, foi possível concluir que espécies localizadas nos refúgios do Pleistoceno (áreas florestais que permaneceram inalteradas durante a última glaciação) tendem a se diferenciar das demais, sendo que espécies endêmicas localizam-se nestas áreas
Title in English
Study of the patterns of intra and interespecific variability in Miltonia LDL. (Orchidaceae)
Abstract in English
Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of the Angiospermae. lt occurs in all continents, and it outstands because of its complexity and beauty. The genus Milfonia belongs to this family, occuring only in South America and being concentrated mainly in Brazil. Baker & Baker (1995) consider that there are nowadays nine species in this genus. The species considered in this paper are: Milfonia anceps (Ldl.), M. clowesii Ldl., M. cuneate Ldl., M. flavescens (Ldl.) Ldl., M. regnellii Reichenbach (f .), M. russeliana (Ldl.) Lindley, M. spectabilis Ldl. e M. spectabilis var. moreliana Henfrey. Samples of these species were collected in several sites in Brazil by the staff of the Departament of Genetics of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz". M. flavescens was also collected in Paraguai. These plants were brought to this department, where they were maintained for many years under uniform environmental condictions, what warrentees that the expressed variability is mainly of genetic nature. These people have done floral herbarium for each collected plant and have taken some measurements: lip, sepal and petal lengths, column length, width and thickness, and length of ovary and pedicel. Furthermore, other measurements, which include sepals, petal and lip width on each 20% of their length and lip length at 25% of their width were taken. The objective of this research was to evaluate intra and interspecific variability patterns. The statistical analyses performed were: analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each character; correlation analysis between each pair of characteres, generalized Mahalanobis distances (D2) among species and among populations within each species, canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), discriminant functions and cluster analysis. Flowering and biogeographical data were also considered. lt was possible to conclude that there is a close concordance among the groups obtained through numerical taxonomy and the tradicional taxonomy, except by the fact that it was proposed that M. spectabilis var. moreliana should be considered a species. lt was also concluded that there is a north - south clinal variation among populations of M. flavescens. The population of Juçari -BA in the northern limit of M. flavescens' distribution considered here was classified as a race. ln addition, populations of M. spectabilis show a north - south clinal variation, and Cascata - RJ population, in the northern limit of M. spectabilis' distribution considered is a race too. Differences in flowering season is an important factor in the diferentiation of the marginal populations in these species, because they difficult the gene flow among them. Both of M. regnellii populations are different races. Populations which occur in Pleistocene refuge tend to become differentiated from the others, and in addition, the endemic species occur in these areas
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