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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2020.tde-20200111-131313
Document
Author
Full name
Gilberto Ken-Iti Yokomizo
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1999
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Interação genótipos x ambientes em topocruzamentos de soja tipo alimento com tipo grão
Keywords in Portuguese
CRUZAMENTO VEGETAL
INTERAÇÃO GENÓTIPO-AMBIENTE
SOJA
Abstract in Portuguese
Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar o desempenho de progênies de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) em três ambientes, avaliar o efeito da interação genótipos x ambientes (G x E) e estimar as correlações entre caracteres visando-se facilitar etapas futuras de seleção e recomendação de novos genótipos de soja alimento com sementes grandes, para três tipos de usos: hortaliça (edamame, vagens imaturas largas, sem restrição de cor de tegumento e de hilo), doce (kuromame, sementes maduras com tegumento e hilo pretos) e salada (sementes maduras com tegumento e hilo de cor clara). Os três ambientes compreendem: a) Piracicaba-verão (PV), semeadura em 15/nov/1996; b) Piracicaba-outono (PU), semeadura em 07/mar/1997; c) Anhembi-verão (AV), semeadura em 17/nov/1996. O maior contraste entre os locais Piracicaba e Anhembi ocorre nas propriedades físico-químicas do solo; Piracicaba tem solo tipo terra roxa estruturada; já Anhembi apresenta solo tipo aluvial distrófico arenoso semelhante aos encontrados nos cerrados brasileiros. Os materiais avaliados foram 24 progênies F9:4 provenientes de 15 topocruzamentos, sendo que dois topocruzamentos (Late Giant x Doko e Aliança Preta x Doko) contribuíram com mais de uma progênie. Os três experimentos foram delineados em blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições estratificadas em conjuntos com testemunhas comuns. Cada repetição foi subdividida em dois conjuntos, contendo 12 progênies e quatro testemunhas (cultivares de soja alimento com sementes grandes). A parcela experimental foi representada por dez covas de plantas individuais espaçadas de 1,00m x 0,50m. Entre parcelas o espaçamento foi 1,00m. Os caracteres avaliados foram: número de dias para a maturidade (NDM); altura da planta na maturidade (APM); acamamento (AC); valor agronômico (VA); largura visual das vagens (LVV); peso de cem sementes (PCS) e produtividade de grãos (PG). Com os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que: a) Várias das progênies superiores em F9:4 já haviam se destacado em gerações anteriores (F2, F3:2 ou F5:4). b) Foram obtidas progênies precoces, com ciclo menor que 110 dias, mesmo em topocruzamentos com o parental tardio ‘Doko’. c) Ao se realizar seleção para maior altura da planta na maturidade (APM) é obrigatório considerar junto o acamamento (AC). d) O ambiente favorável PV foi o que melhor permitiu diferenciar as progênies para os caracteres APM, LVV e PG. O ambiente estressante PU permitiu a diferenciação das progênies para todos os caracteres, exceto para AC. O ambiente AV apresentou desempenho relativamente intermediário em discriminar as progênies. e) As correlações entre caracteres foram muito alteradas pelas variações ambientais. f) O gráfico de caixa evidenciou efeitos ambientais marcantes sobre os caracteres: VA, NDM, PG e APM. Já o tamanho das sementes, avaliado pelo PCS, foi pouco influenciado pelas variações ambientais. g) O método da ecovalência foi mais eficiente que o uso conjunto do teste de Scott-Knott e de histograma para medir a estabilidade das progênies. h) A seleção baseada na estabilidade medida pela ecovalência e nas médias dos caracteres relevantes para soja alimento com sementes grandes mostrou-se eficiente para obtenção de novos genótipos apropriados aos três tipos de usos: salada, doce, hortaliça. Para uso como salada, cinco progênies foram superiores: USP 98-06007, USP 98-0609, USP 98-06027, USP 98-06029 e USP 98-06031. Outras cinco progênies (USP 98-06013, USP 98-06014, USP 98-06017, USP 98-06018 e USP 98-06025) destacaram-se como soja doce. Finalmente, a seleção para soja hortaliça, além das dez progênies anteriores, incluiu mais quatro progênies (USP 98-06011, USP 98-06019, USP 98-06028 e USP 98-06032).
Title in English
Genotype x environment interaction in topcrosses among food type and grain type soybeans
Abstract in English
This research aimed to verify the performance of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) progenies over three environments, to evaluate the genotype x environment (G x E) interaction, and to estimate the correlation among characters. The estimates of these parameters can to facilitate the future selection steps, and the release of new food type, large-seeded genotypes for three kinds of use: vegetable soybean (edamame, imature, large-poded, without limitations on seed-coat and hilum-color); sweetmeat soybean (kuromame, mature seeds with black coat and hilum); salad soybean (mature seeds with light coat and hilum). The three environments were: a) Piracicaba-summer season (PV), sowing on November 15, 1996; b) Piracicaba-autumn season (PU), sowing on March 07, 1997; c) Anhembi-summer season (AV), sowing on November 17, 1996. The localities Piracicaba and Anhembi have as main contrast the physical-chemical properties of soils: Piracicaba has alfisol type; Anhembi presents a sandy soil, commonly found in the Brazilian savannas (cerrados) and with the acidity neutralized by using lime. There were evaluated 24 topcrossed progenies in F9:4, derived from 15 different topcrosses; the following two topcrosses has contributed with more than one progeny: Late Giant x Doko and Aliança Preta x Doko. The three experiments were designed in randomized complete blocks, each one with two replications stratified in experimental sets with common checks. The replications were stratified in two sets, each one having 12 progenies and four checks (food type, large-seeded soybeans cultivars). The experimental plot was represented by ten hills of individual plant, spaced 1.00m x 0.50m. Between plots the space was 1.00m. The following characters were evaluated: number of days to maturity (NDM), plant height at maturity (APM), lodging (AC), agronomic value (VA), visual width pod (LVV), one hundred seed weight (PCS), and seed yield (PG). The results permitted the following conclusions: a) Various of the superior progenies in F9:4 had already exceeded in the previous generations (F2, F3:2 or F5:4). b) It was obtained early progenies having less than 110 days of cycle, despite they were originated from topcrosses with the late parental ‘Doko’. c) In the selection for increase plant height at maturity (APM) it is obligatory to consider the lodging (AC) together. d) The favorable environment (PV) permitted the best differentiation among progenies for the characters APM, LVV, and PG. The stressing environment (PU) permitted the differentiation among progenies for all characters, except AC. The Anhembi-summer environment was relatively intermediate in discriminating the progenies. e) The correlation coefficients among characters were much altered by the environmental variations. f) The “Box-plot” evidenced significative environmental effects on the characters: VA, NDM, PG and APM. However the seed size, evaluated by the one hundred seed weight (PCS), was not much influenced by the environmental variations. g) The ecovalence method was more efficient than the combined use of Scott-Knott method and histogram to measure the stability of the progenies across environments. h) The selection based on the ecovalence stability and on the means of important characters for large-seeded, food type soybeans was efficient in obtaining new genotypes for the three kinds of use: salad, sweetmeat, and vegetable. As salad soybeans were found five superior progenies: USP 98-06007, USP 98-0609, USP 98-06027, USP 98-06029, and USP 98-06031. Other five progenies (USP 98-06013, USP 98-06014, USP 98-06017, USP 98-06018, and USP 98-06025) exceeded as sweetmeat soybeans. Finally, the selection for vegetable soybeans, besides the previous mentioned ten progenies, included more four progenies (USP 98-06011, USP 98-06019, USP 98-06028, and USP 98-06032).
 
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Publishing Date
2020-01-11
 
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