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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.1984.tde-20210104-175603
Document
Author
Full name
Itamar Soares de Melo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1984
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Reação de· berinjela (Solanum melongena L.) A Veticillium albo-atrum Reinke & Berth. sob os aspectos de herança, patogenicidade, controle fitohormonal e biológico
Keywords in Portuguese
BERINJELA
CONTROLE BIOLÓGICO
FUNGOS FITOPATOGÊNICOS
HERANÇA GENÉTICA
HORMÔNIOS VEGETAIS
MURCHA DE VERTICILLIUM
PATOGENICIDADE
Abstract in Portuguese
A berinjela assume a cada dia papel de destaque na olericultura paulista. No entanto, a murcha causada por Veticillium albo-atrum Reinke & Berth., de ocorrência generalizada, constitui um dos problemas fitossanitários que mais afeta essa cultura. Com relação a essa doença, o presente trabalho tem por objetivos identificar fontes de resistência; determinar e comparar níveis de resistência em populações segregantes; determinar o modo de herança da resistência; estimar o coeficiente de herdabilidade; estudar a variação no grau de patogenicidade de V. albo-atrum o fenômeno de proteção cruzada· de dois isolados do fungo; tentar a possibilidade do controle biológico com o fungo antagônico Trichoderma sp. e micorrizas vesículo-arbusculares e estudar o efeito de reguladores de crescimento na incidência da doença. Dos resultados aqui analisados podem ser formuladas as seguintes conclusões: as variedades introduzidas RV-I, RV-II, RV-III e RV-IV representam as melhores fontes de resistência e a população segregante F9RC1 mostrou-se mais resistente do que as demais populações. O coeficiente de herdabilidade, ao nível de progênies, foi estimado em·85,87%. A análise de segregação em F2 pelo teste x2 indicou que a resistência a Veticillium e controlada por um único gene recessivo. Dos dez isolados de Veticillium utilizados, o isolado V5 foi o mais patogênico, enquanto o isolado V10 foi menos patogênico. A interação dos dois isolados (V5 e V10) promoveu o máximo nível de proteção cruzada em berinjela quando o isolado pouco patogênico teve sua concentração 100 vezes maior que a do isolado-muito patogênico. Em condições contra ladas todos os isolados de Trichoderma utilizados reduziram significativamente a doença, exceto a mutante M1. Trichoderma lignorum quando foi utilizado em solo artificialmente infestado com o patógeno não conferiu proteção ao hospedeiro, mas no experimento de campo, tanto T. lignorum quanto o isolado T3 reduziram sensivelmente a incidência da murcha. Os fungos micorrízicos Glomus leptotichum e Glomus macnocarpum intensificaram a severidade da murcha verticilar enquanto Gigaspora margarita e Gigaspora heterogama reduziram. Os reguladores de crescimento 2,4-diclorofeno-xiacético, ácido giberélico, ácido indol-3-butfrico, Cycocel e ácido succínico atrasaram e reduziram a incidência da doença. O maior controla foi conseguido com 2,4-D. O modo de ação dos reguladores não foi investigado.
Title in English
Eggplant (S. melongena L.) reaction to V. albo-atrum Reinke & Berth under the aspects of inheritance, pathogenicity, phytohormonal and biological control
Keywords in English

Abstract in English
Veticillium wilt of eggplant, incited by a microsclerotial form of Veticillium albo-atrum Reinke and Berth. is currently a major disease of this vegetable crop in São Paulo State, Brazil. The use of resistant cultivars associated with the biological control is the most efficient way to control the fungus. ln relation to this disease the present research aimed at identifying sources of resistance; establishing levels of resistance in segregating populations; determining the mode of inheritance; evaluating progenies for resistance reaction and estimating heritability; studying the pathogenicity of ten isolates of V. albo-atrum; investigating the effects of cross-protection by two isoiates with different degrees of pathogenicity; studying the biological control of V. albo-atrum by Trichoderma sp in laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions; investigating the interation between vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae and V. albo-atrum in eggplant and studying the effects of the following growth-regulators·: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic, giberelic acid, indole-3-butiricacid, Cycocel and succinic acid on the Veticillium wilt. The fol lowing conclusions can be formulated from the results herein analysed: a) the introduced varieties RV-I, RV-II, RV-III and RV-IV were the most resistant and the Brazilian varieties showed high susceptibility to V. albo-atrum; b) the segregating population BC to P1 of the backcross of the cultivars (F1: F. Market X RV-I) X F. Market is the most promising one to start a intensive selection program for resistance to pathogen; e} the genetic coefficient of variation for the charater in the progenies indicate sufficient genetic variability for further improvement; d) an estimative. of the heritability of 85,87% was obtained; e) based upon segregation ratios tested by chi-square, the resistance is conditioned by a single recessive gene; f) the isolate V5 was the most pathogenic, while the isolate V10 was less pathogenic; g) the interaction of the two isolates (V5 e V10) of V. albo-atrum induced a high degree of cross-protection in eggplant when the conidial concentration of the less pathogenic isolate was higher than that of the more pathogenic one; h) the best results of the biological control under greenhouse conditions was obtained with Trichoderma hamatum and. the isolate T3 of Trichoderma sp In field conditions, T. lignorum and the isolate T3 reduced signifieantly the disase ; i ) the mycorrhiz as Glomus leptotichum and Glomus macnocarpum enhanced the severity of the disease while Gigaspora margarita and Gigaspora heterogama reduced it; j) All the growth-regulators detayed and reduced the sever i ty of symptoms express i on caused by Veticillium There was a distinct and significant reduction of the disease with 2,4-D. The made of action of. the plant growth-regulators was not investigated.
 
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2021-01-07
 
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