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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2014.tde-04042014-093134
Document
Author
Full name
Sílvia de Oliveira Dorta
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Astúa, Juliana de Freitas (President)
Lopes, Joao Roberto Spotti
Pontes, Rose Gomes Monnerat Solon de
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização de isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis patogênicos à Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)
Keywords in Portuguese
Huanglongbing
Bt
Citros
Endofítico
Entomopatogênica
Insetos sugadores
Ninfas
Psilídeo dos citros
Toxinas
Abstract in Portuguese
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) é uma bactéria entomopatogênica encontrada em várias partes do mundo e tem a capacidade de produzir cristais durante a fase estacionária do crescimento. Esses cristais são toxinas compostas por proteínas ativas contra uma ampla variedade de fases imaturas de insetos. As toxinas do Bt têm sido usadas como bioinseticidas por décadas no controle de insetos das ordens Coleoptera, Lepidoptera e Diptera, e algumas toxinas já foram selecionadas como efetivas contra ácaros, nematoides e insetos sugadores de floema da ordem Hemiptera, como os afídeos. Recentemente, foi comprovada a patogenicidade de três isolados de Bt a outro inseto dessa ordem, o psilídeo Diaphorina citri. Esse psilídeo é vetor das bactérias Candidatus Liberibacter spp., agentes causais da principal doença dos citros: o Huanglongbing ou HLB. A descoberta da capacidade endofítica de Bt em plantas de diferentes espécies vegetais abriu perspectivas para novos estudos usando o Bt para controle de insetos sugadores, como a D. citri. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito patogênico de cada toxina Cry ou Cyt presente nestes três isolados através de isolados de Bt recombinantes expressando as toxinas individualmente. Foram montados bioensaios para confirmar a taxa de mortalidade causada por isolados de Bt contra ninfas de D. citri. Os bioensaios foram feitos usando cinco plantas de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) e dez ninfas de 3º ínstar de D. citri por planta, além dos controles (sem Bt). A mortalidade das ninfas foi avaliada diariamente durante cinco dias. Durante a avaliação, as ninfas mortas foram coletadas para o isolamento do Bt além da detecção do gene da toxina por PCR. No final do experimento, as folhas jovens onde as ninfas se alimentavam também foram avaliadas quanto à presença do Bt. Nossos resultados confirmaram que os isolados de Bt previamente identificados como patogênicos a D. citri causaram elevada mortalidade (em média 68-93%) em ninfas de 3º ínstar. Dentre os isolados recombinantes testados, um deles apresentou grande destaque, causando a mortalidade de 68-81% das ninfas em 48 horas e 83-93% em 120 horas. Esse isolado possui grande potencial de uso no controle biológico de D. citri através da produção de um bioinseticida ou produção de plantas de citros transgênicas.
Title in English
Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates pathogenic to Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)
Keywords in English
Huanglongbing
Asian citrus psyllid
Bt
Citrus
Endophytic
Entomopathogenic
Nymphs
Sucking insects
Toxins
Abstract in English
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an entomopathogenic bacterium found in several locations around the world and has the ability to produce crystals during the stationary phase of growth. These crystals are composed of protein toxins that are active against a wide variety of insect larvae. The Bt toxins have been used for decades as biopesticides to control insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. Some toxins have been selected as effective for mites, nematodes and phloem-sucking insects of the order Hemipera, such as aphids. The pathogenicity of strains of Bt to Diaphorina citri, an hemipteran known as Asian citrus psyllid, has been recently demonstrated. This psyllid is the vector of the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., the causal agents of the main disease of citrus: Huanglongbing or HLB. The discovery of the ability of Bt strains to endophytically colonize plants of different species has opened new perspectives for studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the pathogenic effect of each Cry or Cyt toxin present in these three isolates through the use of recombinant Bt isolates expressing each toxin individually. A series of bioassays were done in order to confirm the mortality caused by Bt strains against nymphs of D. citri. Bioassays were performed in five seedlings of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (five replicates/ bioassay) and using ten D. citri 3rd instar nymphs to each assay plant. A suspension containing Bt spores was inoculated via drench in each seedling, and five seedlings were maintained as negative control (without Bt). Mortality was assessed daily for five days. During the bioassays, dead nymphs were collected for further Bt isolation and detection by PCR. At the end of the experiment, young leaves where nymphs feed were also collected to Bt isolation and detection. Our results confirmed that the previously identified Bt isolates pathogenic to D. citri cause high mortality to 3rd instar nymphs. Among the ten recombinant isolates tested, one of them stood out, causing 68-81 % and 83-93% mortality after 48 and 120 hours of inoculation, respectively. The isolation of Bt from dead nymphs and young leaves, and PCR performed with specific primers confirmed the presence of the Bt isolates in psyllids and plants, and their involvement in psyllid mortality. This recombinant Bt with the higher mortality rate found in our results has the potential to be used as a bioinsecticide to control D. citri and the toxin gene can be used to genetic engineering of citrus.
 
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Release Date
2018-04-16
Publishing Date
2014-04-29
 
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