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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2016.tde-07062016-171940
Document
Author
Full name
Emiliana Manesco Romagnoli
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Mendes, Rodrigo (President)
Louvandini, Helder
Rossmann, Maike
Mui, Tsai Siu
Title in Portuguese
Dinâmica do microbioma ruminal de ovinos (Ovis aries) e sua relação com a degradação de biomassa
Keywords in Portuguese
16S rRNA
Bagaço de cana-de-açúcar
Metagenômica
Metatranscriptômica
Rúmen
Abstract in Portuguese
Considerando a dieta como um fator modulador do microbioma ruminal, neste trabalho objetivou-se investigar o impacto do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar sobre a composição e funcionalidade das espécies microbianas residentes no rúmen de carneiros (Ovis aries). Foram utilizados seis animais machos fistulados de O. aries, dos quais três foram alimentados com uma dieta composta por 70% de volumoso e 30% de concentrado (tratamento controle) e outros três animais alimentados com uma dieta similar a anterior, mas com 14% do volumoso substituído por bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (tratamento bagaço). O conteúdo ruminal (líquido e fibra) foram amostrados quinzenalmente durante 60 dias. A partir dessas amostras foram acessadas a estrutura e a composição da comunidade microbiana pela extração de DNA total e amplificação das regiões V3 e V6-V7 do gene 16S rRNA bacteriano e a região intergênica fúngica (ITS2). Além disso, foram feitas análises metagenômicas e metatranscriptômicas de comunidade microbianas enriquecidas em fibra ruminal para identificar enzimas lignocelulolíticas expressas. As frações líquida e fibrosa do conteúdo ruminal de O. aries revelaram uma comunidade bacteriana dominada principalmente por Bacteroidetes e Firmicutes ao longo de todo período experimental. Dois gêneros, Prevotella e Ruminococcus representaram 20% e 4% da comunidade bacteriana ruminal, respectivamente. Para a comunidade fúngica o filo Neocallimastigomycota representou 91% das sequências e os principais gêneros deste filo foram Piromyces, Neocallimastix, Orpinomyces, Anaeromyces, Caecomyces e Cyllamyces aderidos a fibra ruminal. O gênero Caecomyces, foi significativamente mais abundante na fibra ruminal de animais que se alimentaram de bagaço de cana-de açúcar. Além disso, foi observado um aumento significativo na frequência de enzimas como, por exemplo, 1,4-α-glucano, α-galactosidase, endo 1,4-β-xilanase, β- xilosidase, xilose isomerase, celobiose fosforilase e α-N-arabinofuranosidase no tratamento com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. Considerando que a recuperação de enzimas a partir de comunidades microbianas naturalmente selecionadas para a degradação de biomassa é uma estratégia promissora para superar a atual ineficiência da ação enzimática na produção industrial de biocombustíveis, os resultados deste trabalho representam a possibilidade de aumentar a capacidade de recuperação ou descoberta de enzimas a partir de ruminantes, ou ainda, a possibilidade de manipular a estrutura do microbioma do rúmen para usá-lo como fonte de inóculo enriquecido em processos industriais de degradação de biomassa.
Title in English
Dynamics of the sheep (Ovis aries) rumen microbiome and its relationship with the degradation of biomass
Keywords in English
16S rRNA
Metagenomic
Metatranscriptomic
Rumen
Sugarcane bagasse
Abstract in English
Considering the diet as a modulator of ruminal microbiome, this work aimed to investigate the impact of sugarcane bagasse on the composition and function of microbial species residents in the sheep (Ovis aries) rumen. Six cannulated male animals were used in the experiment, where three individuals were fed on a diet consisting of 70% forage and 30% concentrate (control treatment), and three were fed on a similar diet, but with sugarcane bagasse replacing 14% of the forage portion (bagasse treatment). The ruminal content (i.e., liquid and fiber) were sampled every two weeks during 60 days. From these samples, the structure and composition of the microbial community were assessed by total DNA extraction and amplification of V3 and V6-V7 regions of 16S rRNA gene from bacteria and the fungal intergenic region (ITS2). Furthermore, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approaches were used to evaluate the enrichment of specific members of the microbial community in the ruminal fiber and genes related to lignocellulolytic enzymes. The liquid and fiber fractions of the O. aries rumen revealed a microbial community dominated mainly by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes throughout the experimental period. The genera Prevotella and Ruminococcus accounted for 20% and 4% of the bacterial community of rumen, respectively. In the fungal community, the phylum Neocallimastigomycota accounted for 91% of sequences and its main genera adhered on the ruminal fiber were Piromyces, Neocallimastix, Orpinomyces, Anaeromyces, Caecomyces and Cyllamyces. The genus Caecomyces was significantly more abundant in the ruminal fiber in animals fed on sugarcane bagasse. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the frequency of enzymes, such as α-1,4-glucan, α-galactosidase, endo- 1,4-β-xylanase, β-xylosidase, xylose isomerase, cellobiose phosphorylase and α- Narabinofuranosidase in the bagasse treatment. Considering that the recovery of enzymes from ecosystems naturally evolved for degradation of biomass is a promising strategy to overcome the current inefficient enzymatic action in industrial production of biofuels, the results of this study bring great possibilities to increase the discovery and or recovery of enzymes from ruminants, as well as the possibility of the ruminal microbiome structure manipulation to be used as source of an enriched inoculum for biomass degradation in industrial processes.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-06-24
 
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