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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.1997.tde-20220207-222610
Document
Author
Full name
João José Dias Parisi
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1997
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Sensibilidade in vitro de Phomopsis sojae e Phomopsis phaseoli f. sp. meridionalis a fungicidas e efeito do tratamento de sementes de soja (Glycine max) inoculadas com os patógenos
Keywords in Portuguese
CANCRO DA HASTE
FUNGICIDAS
FUNGOS FITOPATOGÊNICOS
INOCULAÇÃO
SECA DA HASTE
SEMENTES
SOJA
TRATAMENTO
Abstract in Portuguese
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de produtos para o controle de Phomopsis sojae e Phomopsis phaseoli f. sp. meridionalis através de testes de fungitoxicidade in vitro e in vivo. No teste in vitro foram utilizados 4 isolados de P. sojae e 4 isolados de P. phaseoli f. sp. meridionalis. Foram comparados 14 fungicidas quanto à eficiência na porcentagem de inibição do crescimento micelial (PIC), com 0, 1, 10 e 100 ppm do ingrediente ativo. Através do cálculo da ED50 ( dose necessária para inibir em 50 % crescimento micelial), foram considerados altamente eficientes (ED50 < 1 ppm), para ambos os patógenos, os produtos benomyl, carbendazin, thiabendazole e difenoconazole; além desses, o quintozene também se destacou, apesar de sua eficiência ter variado conforme o isolado. Observou-se, de uma maneira geral, uma menor sensibilidade dos isolados de P. sojae, concluindo-se que os produtos adequados para esse patógeno o são também para P. phaseoli f. sp. meridianalis. Para a realização dos testes in vivo foi escolhido um isolado de cada patógeno, usando-se como critério o que apresentou maior ED50 (mais tolerante) para todos os produtos químicos comparados in vitro. As sementes do cultivar IAC 14, altamente suscetível a P. phaseoli f. sp. meridianalis, foram inoculadas artificialmente pelo método do contato, com os dois patógenos, sendo depois tratadas com os seguintes fungicidas e doses (g i.a./100 kg sementes): benomyl (50), carbendazin (50), thiabendazole (20), difenoconazole (5) e quintozene (225). O teste de sanidade (pelo método do papel de filtro) foi avaliado aos 7, 10 e 13 dias, contando-se o número de picnídios e picnídios + micélio típico. Os melhores tratamentos, que não diferiram entre si, foram benomyl, carbendazin e thiabendazole. Na testemunha, a incidência foi de 98 % para ambos os patógenos, considerando-se picnídios + micélio típico, aos 1 O ou 13 dias de incubação. No teste de germinação, somente sementes inoculadas com P. sojae mostraram diferença significativa em relação as sementes não inoculadas e não tratadas. Os demais tratamentos não diferiram entre si para ambos os patógenos. A emergência não foi afetada por nenhum tratamento, para ambos os patógenos. Esses resultados indicam que a importância do tratamento químico de sementes, principalmente para o agente causal do cancro da haste, está relacionada com a não introdução desse patógeno em áreas livres do mesmo. Dentre os fungicidas e doses comparadas, deve-se recomendar o tratamento de sementes de soja portadoras de P. sojae e P. phaseoli f. sp. meridianalis com benomyl, carbendazin ou thiabendazole.
Title in English
In vitro sensibility of Phomopsis sojae and Phomopsis phaseoli f. sp. meridianalis to fungicides and effect in soybean (Glycine max) seed treatments inoculated with both pathogens
Abstract in English
The present study was carried out to evaluate different fungicides for the control of Phomopsis sojae and Phomopsis phaseoli f. sp. meridianalis through in vitro and in vivo fungitoxicity tests. In the in vitro test, 4 isolates of P. sojae and 4 isolates of P. phaseoli f. sp. meridionalis were used. Fourteen fungicides were compared for their efficiency in inhibiting the micelial growth of the pathogens on PDA containing 0, 1, 10 and 100 ppm of the active ingredients. By calculating the ED50 (dose required for inhibiting 50 % of the micelial growth), benomyl, carbendazin, thiabendazole and difenoconazole were considered highly efficient (ED50 < 1 ppm). Although its efficiency was variable among the isolates, quintozene showed superior among others fungicidess. P. sojae was, in general, less sensible to the fungicides than P. phaseoli f. sp. meridionalis, although both pathogens showed similar pattems of responses to the fungicides. One isolate of each pathogen was chosen for in vivo tests, according to the higher ED50 values obtained for all products tested. Seeds of the cultivar IAC 14, which is highly susceptible, were inoculated with both pathogens through the contact method and subsequently treated with the following fungicides and doses (g a.i./100 kg of seeds): benomyl (50), carbendazin (50), thiabendazole (20), difenoconazole (5) and quintozene (225). The health test performed through the blotter method was evaluated at 7, 10 and 13 days of incubation, by counting the number of pycnidia and pycnidia + typical mycelium. The best treatments, which were not different among themselves, were benomyl, carbendazin and thiabendazole. No treated seeds showed an incidence of 98 % for both pathogens, considering pycnidia + typical mycelium, at 10 or 13 days of incubation. ln the germination test only inoculated seeds with P. sojae showed diferences in relation to the seeds not inoculated and not treated with fungicides. Others treatments did not show differences in relation to both pathogens. Emergency was not affected by both pathogens or fungicide treatments. Results indicate that importance of the chemical treatment of the seeds is related with the non introduction of the pathogen to areas free of the pathogen. According to the results obtained, seeds containing P. sojae and P. phaseoli f. sp. meridianalis should be treated with benomyl, carbendazin or thiabendazole.
 
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Publishing Date
2022-02-07
 
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