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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2018.tde-20181127-160626
Document
Author
Full name
Patricia Perondi Anchão
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1995
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Interação microbiologia - fungicidas no tratamento de sementes de alfafa visando redução na taxa de semeadura
Keywords in Portuguese
ALFAFA
FUNGICIDAS
FUNGOS FITOPATOGÊNICOS
SEMEADURA
SEMENTES
TOMBAMENTO
TRATAMENTO
Abstract in Portuguese
Existe uma grande variação na recomendação de taxas de semeadura para plantio de alfafa, que é influenciada pelo aparecimento de damping-off nas plântulas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo isolar os fungos possíveis causadores de damping-off na cultura de alfafa no Estado de São Paulo, avaliar o uso de fungicidas sobre as taxas de emergência, sobrevivência, produção e rizobiologia das plantas e testar várias taxas de semeadura a campo associada com o uso de fungicidas. Os fungos isolados foram a Rhizoctonia solani e o Fusarium sp., sendo os efeitos da Rhizoctonia mais drásticos. Os gêneros dos fungos encontrados estão ligados a época do ano da coleta, local e ambiente (temperatura e umidade). O uso de fungicidas no tratamento de sementes apresentou um efeito positivo, em casa-de-vegetação, no início da cultura, que se diluiu com o passar do tempo. Em condições de campo na presença simultânea dos dois patógenos o fungicida não apresentou efeito. Houve um resultado interativo entre a estirpe de Rhizobium meliloti utilizada e o fungicida empregado quer no tratamento de semente como em superfície. Não se recomenda a associação da estirpe de Rhizobium,/i> SEMIA 135 com tratamento de semente e solo com Iprodione. O aumento na taxa de semeadura acima de 10 Kg não promoveu aumento no stand e consequentemente na produção de matéria-seca na presença dos dois patógenos em condições de campo.
Title in English
Microbiology-fungicide interaction on the treatment of alfalfa seeds aiming at a reduction on seed rate
Abstract in English
There is a wide range of seed rates recommended for the establishment of an alfalfa field, wich is influenced by the damping-off disease. The objectives of this study were to isolate possible microorganisms causing damping-off of alfalfa seedlings in the State of São Paulo; evaluate fungicide use upon emergence rates survival, production and rhizobiology of plants and test several seed rates in association with fungicide applications in a field condition. The fungi isolated were Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium sp. Rhizoctonia was the most important pathogen causing damping-off in the alfalfa fields in São Paulo. The pathogens collected in the field may be influenced by environment conditions. High temperatures and humidity during the field collectons may have favoured Fusarium and Rhizoctonia and not other damping-off pathogens. This fact suggest that research on fungicides to control damping-off disease may have to consider environment asn an important factor to study. The use of fungicides on seed treatment showed a positive effect under glasshouse conditions during the early stages of the crop but was not persistent over time. On field condition, under simultaneous presence of both R. solani and Fusarium sp, the fungicide treatment did not present any measurable effect. There were significative interactions between the strain of Rhizobium meliloti and the fungicide used in both the seed and soil treatment. The SEMIA 135 strain is not recommended un association with soil and seed treatment based on Iprodione. Under field conditions, seed rates higher than 10 Kg/ha did not result in any increase on population of plants (stand) and dry matter yield when both R. solani and Fusarium sp were present.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-11-27
 
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