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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2011.tde-28042011-163541
Document
Author
Full name
Leandro Martins Barbero
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Silva, Sila Carneiro da (President)
Herling, Valdo Rodrigues
Pedreira, Carlos Guilherme Silveira
Santos, Patricia Menezes
Sbrissia, André Fischer
Title in Portuguese
Respostas morfogênicas e características estruturais do capim-mulato submetido a estratégias de pastejo rotativo
Keywords in Portuguese
Brachiaria
Dossel - Estrutura
Ecofisiologia vegetal
Morfogênese vegetal
Pastejo - Manejo
Plantas forrageiras.
Abstract in Portuguese
Plantas forrageiras se adaptam ao pastejo por meio de modificações em forma e função alterando seus padrões de expressão morfogênica e, consequentemente, de acúmulo e composição morfológica da forragem produzida. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as respostas morfogênicas e as estruturais de perfilhos em pastos de capim-mulato submetidos a estratégias de pastejo rotativo de fevereiro de 2008 a abril de 2009. Os tratamentos corresponderam combinações entre duas condições pós-pastejo (alturas pós-pastejo de 15 e 20 cm - APP) e duas condições pré-pastejo (95% e máxima interceptação de luz pelo dossel forrageiro - IL), e foram alocados às unidades experimentais (piquetes de 1200 m2) segundo arranjo fatorial 2x2 e delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis-resposta: taxa de aparecimento de folhas (TApF); filocrono (FIL); taxa de alongamento de folhas (TAlF); taxa de alongamento de colmos (TAlC); taxa de senescência de folhas (TSeF); encurtamento do colmo (EC); duração da vida da folha (DVF); duração do alongamento foliar (DAF); comprimento final da folha (CFF); número de folhas vivas (NFV), em expansão (NFEx), expandidas (NFE) e senescentes (NFS) por perfilho; comprimento do colmo (CC) e relação folha:colmo por perfilho (F:C). Tanto perfilhos basais como aéreos apresentaram sazonalidade de desenvolvimento caracterizada por ritmos morfogênicos mais lentos durante o outono/inverno/início de primavera e mais acelerados durante o final de primavera e verão. No caso de perfilhos basais, pastos manejados a 95% de IL apresentaram maiores valores de TApF no Verão 2. No Verão 1, o EC nesses pastos foi menor, sendo observado comportamento inverso no final da primavera. Menores valores de TAlC e TSeF foram registrados nos pastos manejados a 95% relativamente àqueles manejados com máxima IL (99%). Adicionalmente, pastos manejados com altura pós-pastejo 20 cm apresentaram maiores valores de TAlF, TSeF e DAF que pastos manejados a 15 cm, especialmente na condição pré-pastejo de 95% de IL. Nos perfilhos aéreos, maiores valores de TAlC e TSeF foram registrados nos pastos manejados com máxima IL (99%) relativamente àqueles manejados a 95% de IL. Com relação às características estruturais, a APP afetou apenas aquelas relacionadas com o porte da planta (CFF e CC). Apesar das diferenças estatísticas, o NFV foi relativamente constante para aéreos e basais (2,5 e 4,0 folhas por perfilho, respectivamente), com as diferenças entre categorias de perfilhos refletindo diferenças em NFS e NFE e não em NFEx. Perfilhos basais foram maiores que aéreos, porém com menor F:C. Para perfilhos basais, NFV, NFEx e F:C foram maiores em pastos manejados a 95% de IL e, para aéreos, naqueles manejados com máxima IL, padrão condizente com o fato de perfilhos aéreos serem provenientes de perfilhos basais reprodutivos decapitados. De forma geral, as características estruturais foram mais afetadas pela IL e época do ano do que pela APP, indicando, claramente, importância relativa maior da frequência comparativamente à severidade de desfolhação para controle da estrutura do dossel. Diante do exposto, a condição ideal para interrupção do processo de rebrotação dos pastos de capim-mulato é quando o dossel atinge 95% de IL com uma altura pós-pastejo de 20 cm.
Title in English
Morphogenetic responses and structural characteristics of mulato grass subjected to strategies of rotational stocking management
Keywords in English
Brachiaria
Forage plants.
Grazing management
Morphogenesis
Plant ecopysiology
Sward structure
Abstract in English
Forage plants adapt to grazing through morphological and physiological changes that modify their morphogenesis and, in turn, herbage accumulation and morphological composition of the produced herbage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphogenetic responses and the structural characteristics of individual tillers on mulato grass swards subjected to strategies of rotational stocking management from February 2008 until April 2009. Treatments corresponded to combinations between two post-grazing (post-grazing heights of 15 and 20 cm) and two pre-grazing (95% and maximum light interception by sward canopy LI) conditions, and were allocated to experimental units (1200 m2 paddocks) according to a 2x2 factorial arrangement and a randomised complete block design, with four replications. The following response variables were evaluated: rates of leaf appearance (LAR), leaf elongation (LER), stem elongation (SER), leaf senescence (LSR), reduction in stem length (RSL), phyllochron (PHY), leaf lifespan (LLS), leaf elongation duration (LED), final leaf length (FLL), number of live (NLL), expanding (NExL), expanded (NEL) and senescing (NSL) leaves per tiller, stem length (SL) and the leaf:stem ratio per tiller (L:S). Both basal and aerial tillers showed a clear seasonal pattern of growth characterised by slow morphogenetic rhythms during autumn/winter/early spring and fast rhythms during late spring and summer. For basal tillers, swards managed at 95% LI showed highest values of LAR in summer 2. In Summer 1, RSL on those swards was lowest, the reverse happening in late spring. Lower values of SER and LSR were recorded on swards managed at 95% relative to those managed at maximum LI (99%). Further, swards managed with the postgrazing height of 20 cm showed larger values of LER, LSR and LED than those with 15 cm, particularly for the 95% LI pre-grazing condition. For aerial tillers, larger values of SER and LSR were recorded on swards managed at maximum LI (99%) relative to those managed at 95% LI. In relation to structural characteristics, postgrazing height only influenced those related to plant size (FLL and SL). In spite of the statistical differences, NLL was relatively stable for aerial and basal tillers (2.5 and 4.0 leaves per tiller, respectively), with differences between tiller categories mainly due to differences in NSL and NEL, not NExL. Basal tillers were bigger than aerial tillers, although had lower L:S. For basal tillers, NLL, NExL and L:S were larger on swards managed at 95% LI and, for aerial tillers, larger values were recorded on swards managed at maximum LI, a pattern in line with the fact that aerial tillers are originated from decapitated reproductive basal tillers. Overall, structural characteristics were more influenced by LI and season of the year than by postgrazing height, highlighting the larger importance of frequency relative to severity of defoliation for controlling sward structural characteristics. As a result, the ideal 14 condition for interrupting regrowth of rotationally stocked mulato grass correspond to a pre-grazing condition of 95% LI and a post-grazing height of 20 cm.
 
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Publishing Date
2011-04-29
 
WARNING: The material described below relates to works resulting from this thesis or dissertation. The contents of these works are the author's responsibility.
  • SILVEIRA, MÁRCIA CRISTINA TEIXEIRA DA, et al. Herbage accumulation and grazing losses on Mulato grass subjected to strategies of rotational stocking management [doi:10.1590/s0103-90162013000400004]. Scientia Agrícola (USP. Impresso) [online], 2013, vol. 70, p. 242-249.
  • SILVEIRA, Márcia C T, et al. Grazing losses and grazing efficiency on mulato grass subjected to strategies of rotational stocking management. In Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS), New Orleans, 2011. E-Supplement - Journal of Animal Science.New Orleans : American Society of Animal Science, 2011. Abstract.
  • SILVEIRA, Márcia C T, et al. Pre- and post-grazing targets for mulato grass subjected to rotational stocking management. In Annual Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS), New Orleans, 2011. E-Supplement - Journal of Animal Science.New Orleans : American Society of Animal Science, 2011. Abstract.
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