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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2016.tde-09052016-180755
Document
Author
Full name
Priscila Oliveira Martins
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Vitti, Godofredo Cesar (President)
Favarin, José Laercio
Rodrigues, Fernanda Latanze Mendes
Soratto, Rogério Peres
Vale, Fábio
Title in Portuguese
Eficiência de fontes, dinâmica do magnésio no solo sob a cultura do café no Brasil e comparação da análise de K, Ca e Mg em solos do Arkansas-EUA seco em estufa e úmido de campo
Keywords in Portuguese
Coffea arabica
Efeito da secagem no solo
Extratores de solo
Fertilizantes magnesianos
Índice de eficiência agronômica
Abstract in Portuguese
A cultura do café no Brasil tem apresentado frequente deficiência de magnésio (Mg) limitando sua produtividade, portanto faz-se necessário o estudo de fontes que contenham Mg para essa cultura. Por outro lado, o estudo das metodologias de análise de K, Ca e Mg no solo é um outro ponto que precisa ser estudado para melhor manejo da fertilidade do solo e recomendação de adubações. Objetivou-se com o primeiro experimento avaliar a eficiência de fontes de magnésio para a cultura do café e a dinâmica deste nutriente no perfil do solo. E com o experimento desenvolvido em Arkansas-EUA, avaliar as correlações entre as concentrações de nutrientes do solo seco em estufa e úmido de campo extraídos com Mehlich-3 e 1 mol L-1 NH4OAc. Observou-se que o óxido e oxissulfato de Mg elevaram os valores de pH e CTC e diminuíram a concentração de H + Al do solo. As fontes diminuíram a disponibilidade de K e Ca, e aumentaram o Mg no solo. Na planta, óxido e sulfato de Mg proporcionaram maior concentração de Mg foliar. Apenas no segundo ano de avaliação houve aumento de produtividade do café. Os fertilizantes óxido e oxissulfato de Mg obtiveram o maior índice de eficiência agronômica em relação ao carbonato de Mg. No segundo experimento, K, Ca e Mg extraíveis com Mehlich-3 e NH4OAc foram altamente correlacionados (r2> 0,95) tanto para solo úmido de campo quanto para o seco em estufa. A relação entre as concentrações de K no solo seco em estufa e úmido de campo para Mehlich-3 e NH4OAc foram muito semelhantes e altamente correlacionados (r2 = 0,92). A secagem do solo em estufa teve efeito mínimo sobre as concentrações de Ca e reduziu a concentração de Mg tanto para Mehlich-3 quanto para NH4OAc. Entre os nutrientes estudados, a concentração de K foi a mais afetada pela secagem em estufa, necessitando de pesquisas de campo para correlacionar e calibrar novas recomendações agronômicas.
Title in English
Sources efficiency, soil magnesium dynamics under the Brazil coffee crop and analysis comparison of K, Ca and Mg in Arkansas-US field-moist and oven-dry soil
Keywords in English
Coffea arabica
Agronomic efficiency index
Magnesium fertilizer
Soil drying effect
Soil extractors
Abstract in English
Brazilian coffee crop has often presented magnesium (Mg) deficiency limiting its productivity, so it is necessary to study sources containing Mg for this crop. On the other hand, the study of K, Ca and Mg soil analysis methodologies are another point that needs to be study to better management of soil fertility and fertilizer recommendation. The purpose of the first experiment was to evaluate Mg sources efficiency for coffee crop and nutrient dynamics in the soil profile. The second experiment objective, developed in Arkansas-US, was to evaluate the correlation between field-moist and oven-dry soil nutrient concentrations extracted with Mehlich- 3 and 1 mol L-1 NH4OAc. It was observed that the oxide and Mg oxysulfate increased pH and CEC values and decreased H + Al concentration. Mg sources declined K and Ca availability, and increased soil Mg. In the plant, oxide and Mg sulfate provided higher leaf Mg. Only in the second year there was increase coffee productivity. Oxide and Mg oxysulfate fertilizers had the highest agronomic efficiency index relative to Mg carbonate. In the second experiment, Mehlich-3 and NH4OAc extractable K, Ca, and Mg concentrations were highly correlated (r2 > 0.95) for both field-moist and oven-dry soil. The relation between oven-dry and field-moist K concentrations for Mehlich-3 and NH4OAc was very similar and highly correlated (r2 = 0.92). Oven drying had minimal effect on Ca concentrations and decreased Mg concentrations for both Mehlich-3 and NH4OAc. Among the Mehlich-3 extractable nutrients that are used to make fertilization decisions, K concentration was most affected by ovendrying and requires field research to correlate and calibrate new agronomic recommendations.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-05-17
 
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