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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2010.tde-15032010-150957
Document
Author
Full name
Bruno Fernando Faria Pereira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Melfi, Adolpho Jose (President)
Abreu Junior, Cassio Hamilton
Camargo, Otavio Antonio de
Mourão Filho, Francisco de Assis Alves
Nogueira, Sandra Furlan
Title in Portuguese
Alterações químicas no sistema solo-planta irrigado com efluente de esgoto tratado no cultivo dos citros
Keywords in Portuguese
Efluentes
Laranja
Metais pesados
Pomelo
Química do solo
Reúso da água.
Abstract in Portuguese
Em dois agroecossistemas distintos (Piracicaba, SP, Brasil e Okeechobee, FL, EUA) cultivados com citros objetivou-se avaliar: i) a concentração de nutrientes, metais pesados no efluente de esgoto tratado (EET) e sua qualidade para o uso agrícola, e; ii) os efeitos da irrigação com EET na fertilidade do solo e nutrição das plantas. Em Piracicaba, SP, foi conduzido um experimento com três blocos casualizados e cinco tratamentos. Quatro lâminas de irrigação distintas com EET foram aplicadas durante 21 meses em laranjeiras [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] sobre Citrus paradisi Macfad. x Poncirus trifoliata Raf] com base na evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc) sendo: 100%, 125%, 150% e 200% da ETc, além do tratamento sem irrigação (0%). Em Okeechobee, FL, foi realizado um estudo de caso em um pomar comercial cultivado com pomeleiros [(Citrus paradise Macf.) sobre (Citrus aurantium L.)]. Neste local comparou-se dois talhões; um irrigado com EET (durante 11 anos) e outro irrigado com água. Os EETs utilizados nos dois estudos apresentaram qualidade satisfatória para o uso agrícola (FAO, 1992). No primeiro agroecossistema houve correlação negativa entre as lâminas de irrigação com EET e a acidez ativa, acidez potencial, saturação por alumínio e os teores de K trocável e Pb disponível. Por outro lado, correlações positivas foram encontradas entre S, B, Cu e Na no solo e as lâminas de irrigação. Comparando-se a lâmina de irrigação 100% da ETc e o controle (0%), houve um aumento na abundância natural de 15N e nas concentrações de S, B e Na, e um decréscimo de P, K, Mn, Al e Cr nas folhas. As menores concentrações destes elementos foram associadas às lâminas excessivas (> 100% da ETc). A influência máxima das lâminas de irrigação com EET na altura das plantas foi obtida entre as lâminas 93 e 107% da ETc. Quanto ao segundo agroecossistema, houve um aumento na concentração de NH4 +, NO3 -, Mg, S, B, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni e Zn disponíveis no solo após 11 anos de irrigação com EET. Já no tecido foliar houve um acréscimo de Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, e Zn. As concentrações de Cd, Co, Mo e Pb foram encontradas abaixo do limite de detecção no tecido foliar. O efeito do EET é pronunciado no longo prazo, e pode suprir parcialmente alguns nutrientes do programa de adubação. Mesmo após longo período de irrigação com EET, o risco de salinização do solo e acúmulo de metais pesados parecem mínimos. Com base nestes resultados fica evidente que além de ser uma fonte alternativa de água, o EET influencia positivamente na fertilidade do solo e nutrição dos citros.
Title in English
Chemical changes in the soil-plan system irrigated with reclaimed wastewater on citrus crop
Keywords in English
Grapefruit
Heavy Metals
Ionic Speciation
Orange
Wastewater
Water Reuse
Abstract in English
Considering two different agroecosystems (Piracicaba, SP, Brazil and Okeechobee, FL, USA) cultivated with citrus, the objectives of the study were to evaluate: i) the concentration of nutrients, heavy metals in reclaimed wastewater (RWW) and its quality for the agricultural use; and ii) the effects of RWW irrigation on soil fertility and plant nutrition. At Piracicaba, SP, an experiment were carried out with three randomized blocks and five treatments. Four different RWW irrigation rates were applied over 21 months, in orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb] on Citrus paradisi Macfad. x Poncirus trifoliata Raf], based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc): 100%, 125%, 150% and 200% of ETc as well as a treatment without irrigation (0%). At Okeechobee, FL, a survey study was carried out in a commercial citrus grove cultivated with grapefruit [(Citrus paradise Macf.) on (Citrus aurantium L.)]. At this site two citrus blocks were compared; one irrigated with RWW (11 years) and the other with well water. The RWW used in both studies displayed satisfactory quality for the agricultural use (FAO, 1992). The first agroecosystem had negative correlation between RWW irrigation rates and active acidity, potential acidity, aluminum saturation, exchangeable K and available Pb. Whereas positive correlations were found for S, B, Cu and Na in soil with RWW rates. Comparing the irrigation rate of 100% of ETc with the control plot (0%), increasing contents of N, 15N, S, B, and decreasing contents of P, K, Mn, Al and Cr were observed in the leaf tissue. Lower concentrations of these elements were associated with the over irrigation rates (> 100% of ETc). The greatest effect of the irrigation rates on plants height was found between 93 and 107% of ETc. At the second agroecosystem, increasing concentration of NH4 +, NO3 -, Mg, S, B, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni and Zn in soil were found after 11 years of RWW irrigation. In leaf tissue also increasing concentrations of Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. Concentration of Cd, Co, Mo and Pb were below the detection limit of detection in the leaf tissue. The effects of the RWW irrigation are pronounced after long term application, and can partially supply some nutrients from the fertilization program. Even after long term RWW irrigation, the risks of soil salinization and heavy metals accumulation can be considered as low. The results highlight that besides an alternative waster source, RWW can provide benefits on soil fertility and citrus nutrition.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-03-24
 
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