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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.2019.tde-20191218-155539
Document
Author
Full name
Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1992
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Determinada usando 15N
Keywords in Portuguese
CAUPI
FEIJÃO
FERTILIDADE DO SOLO
FERTILIZANTES NITROGENADOS MARCADOS
FIXAÇÃO BIOLÓGICA DE NITROGÊNIO
NITROGÊNIO-15
SIMBIOSE
Abstract in Portuguese
Dois experimentos foram realizados com caupi (cv. CNC x 284-4E) e feijão (cv. Carioca) em casa de vegetação, utilizando vasos com 5 Kg de terra (LE), com os objetivos de avaliar, através da técnica da diluição isotópica-15N e como plantas controles arroz e soja não nodulante: a) as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante) aos 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS). Comparou-se também duas técnicas para avaliação da fixação de N2 : método isotópico (DI) e método da diferença (MD) (Exp. l); b) Os efeitos das doses de N (2, 15, 30, 45 e 60 ppm de N-uréia) aos 23, 40 e 76 DAS sobre a fixação simbiótica de N2 (Exp. 2). Durante as amostragens avaliou-se a atividade da nitrogenase e na parte aérea das plantas determinou-se a massa seca (MS), N-total (QNT) e 15N. Os resultados permitiram as seguintes conclusões: - No Exp. 1, o acúmulo de MS e de N absorvido (QNT) aumentaram significativamente em cada época de desenvolvimento das culturas, sendo maior no período de enchimento das vagens e maturação fisiológica (MF) (58-78 DAS para caupi e 47-78 DAS para feijão). - Na MF (78 DAS), o caupi acumulou 706,32 mg N/planta, 93% do qual derivado da fixação (%Nfix, 5,8% vindo do solo (%NPPS) e 1,2% do fertilizante (%NPPF). Da máxima QNT acumulada pelo feijão aos 68 DAS (298, 12 mg N/planta), esses valores foram de 83%, 13,6% e 3%, respectivamente. - As baixas contribuições relativas do N do solo e do fertilizante para o N das vagens evidenciaram que a maior fonte de N para esses órgãos foi o Nfix (95 e 89% para caupi e feijão, respectivamente). - Os resultados de % Nfix e QN Nfix pelo feijão e caupi aos 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 DAS (controle = arroz) e 31, 58 e 78 DAS (controle = soja não nodulante), indicaram de um modo geral boas concordâncias entre o DI e MD. - Arroz e soja não nodulante foram adequadas plantas controles durante os períodos citados acima, porém não válido para as demais épocas ( 17 e 24 DAS) devido a influência do N da semente, principalmente para soja não nodulante. - No Exp. 2, a QNfix variou de 130,46, a 207,53 mg N/planta (55,59 a 81,49%) para caupi e de 123, 73 a 170,64 mg N/planta (55,06 a 71,89%) para feijão, dependendo da quantidade de N aplicado. As baixas temperaturas influenciaram nesses resultados. - A aplicação de 45 e 60 ppm de N tiveram pouco efeito adverso na % Nfix de caupi e feijão. - Os experimentos confirmaram a potencialidade que a associação da cv. CNC x 284-4E com a estirpe CM 1528 31-3 tem, de substituir a adubação nitrogenada, quando condições de solo e da planta permitem uma plena simbiose, dispensando inclusive a adubação nitrogenada de arranque. Todavia, a associação cv. Carioca/CM01 31-3 necessita de uma dose de arranque (15 ppm de N) para obtenção de produções econômicas aceitáveis.
Title in English
Absorption time course of nitrogen from soil, fertilizer and symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined by 15N
Abstract in English
Two experiments were carried out in green-house with cowpea (cv. CNC x 284-4E) and common bean (cv. Carioca), using pots with 5 Kg soil (Red Yellow medium texture latosol). The objectives of the experiments were to evaluate, through the-15N-dilution technique and using rice and soybean plants as standard crops, the following: a) Relative contributions of N sources (symbiotically fixed N, Soil-N and Fertilizer-N) at 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS). Tow techniques for evaluating N2 fixation, namely, the isotopic (ID) and the difference methods (DM), were also compared (Exp. 1 ). b) The effects of N rates (2, 15, 30, 45 and 60 ppm urea-N) at 23, 40 and 76 DAS on the nitrogen fixation by the crops (Exp. 2). During the samplings, the nitrogenase activity were evaluated and plant above ground parts were colected for the evaluations of dry weight (DW), total N and 15N. The following conclusion were drawn: First Experiment: - The accumulation of plant DW and N taken up (QNT) increased significantly in each growing stage of bean and cowpea. This accumulation was sensibly greater in the pod filling and physiological maturation stage (PM) (58-78 DAS for cowpea and 48-78 DAS for bean). - Cowpea accumulated, at PM (78 DAS), 706.32 mg N/plant, 93% of which derived from the fixation (%Ndfa), 5.8% from the soil (%Ndfs) and 1.2% from the fertilizer (%Ndff). The highest value of QNT for bean plants was 298.12 mg N/plant, of which 83%, 13.6% and 3%, respectively for %Ndfa, %Ndfs and %Ndff. - The low relative contributions of soil and fertilizer N to the pod N evidenced that the major N source for the formation of these organs was the fixed N (95 and 89% for cowpea and bean, respectively). - The results of N fixed by cowpea and bean at 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 DAS (rice as standard crop) and 31, 58 and 78 DAS (soybean as standard crop) indicated good agreement between the two methods (ID and DM). - Rice and non nodulating soybean plants were adequate standards in this pot experiment condition and period above mentioned. However, this was not the case for the other periods (17 and 24 DAS) due to the effect of seed N, mainly for soybean.Second Experiment: - The Ndfa ranged from 130.46 to 207.53 mg N/plant (55.59 to 81.49%) for cowpea and 123.73 to 170.64 mg N/plant (55.06 to 71.89%) for bean, depending the rate of applied N. The low temperature affected nitrogen fixation. - The application of 45 and 60 ppm N had little adverse effect of the nitrogen fixation of cowpea and bean. - The experiments confirmed the potentiality presented by the association of cowpea cv. CNC x 284-4E with CM 1528 31-3 strain for substituting totally nitrogen fertilizer application, when soil and plant conditions allow complete symbiose, excempting even the starter N fertilizer. However, the association bean cv. Carioca/CM 01 31-3 needs started N fertilizer (15 ppm N) for obtaining acceptable economic yelds.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-12-19
 
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