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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2019.tde-20191220-112350
Document
Author
Full name
Amoacy Carvalho Fabricio
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1994
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Suprimento de boro e zinco para cultivares de trigo: em solução nutritiva e em dois tipos de solo
Keywords in Portuguese
BORO
FERTILIDADE DO SOLO
NUTRIÇÃO VEGETAL
TRIGO
VARIEDADES VEGETAIS
ZINCO
Abstract in Portuguese
O trigo é um cereal de grande importância na alimentação humana e no Brasil destaca-se como a principal cultura anual de inverno produzido nas Regiões Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. A produtividade da cultura está intimamente relacionada com a nutrição adequada das plantas e os micronutrientes têm importância relevante, já que são menos estudados que os macronutrientes. Partindo-se da hipótese que a produção de massa seca e absorção de nutrientes pela planta podem variar em cada cultivar e em tipos de solos, entende-se que maior conhecimento sobre esses assuntos facilitariam a recomendação de cultivares e doses de nutrientes em função da exigência dessas e o tipo de solo. Assim, realizaram-se experimentos em casa de vegetação com dois tipos de solo (Latossolo Roxo distrófico e Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro distrófico) e em câmara de crescimento, utilizando-se quatorze cultivares de trigo, avaliando-se diferentes níveis de cada nutriente (B e Zn). Os experimentos com solo foram instalados em delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Cada parcela constituiu-se de um vaso de plástico com 3 l de terra. Os cinco níveis de cada elemento foram: boro 0,0; 0,4; 0,8; 1,2 e 1,6 mg B/dm3 de terra na forma de H3 BO3 e zinco 0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 mg Zn/dm3 de terra na forma de ZnCl2. Usou-se a cultivar de trigo BR 18-Terena com seis plantas por vaso. Os experimentos em câmara de crescimento foram instalados em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcela subdividida com três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelos quatro níveis dos nutrientes (boro: 0,00; 0,25; 0,50 e 1,25 mg B/l e zinco: 0,000; 0,025; 0,050 e 0,100 mg Zn/l) e as subparcelas pelas quatorze cultivares de trigo. A adição de boro e zinco proporcionou aumento dos teores desses elementos nos solos e nas plantas, sem, no entanto, influir significativamente no rendimento de grãos. No Latossolo Roxo distrófico a adição de 0,8 mg B/dm3 foi suficiente para obter rendimentos de massa seca de palha estatisticamente igual à dose máxima. Na câmara de crescimento as cultivares responderam de modo diferenciado à adição de boro e zinco. No experimento com boro, as cultivares BR 10-Formosa e BR 17-Caiuá foram mais eficientes que as demais na utilização do nutriente e, no experimento com zinco, as mais eficientes foram Anahuac e BR 18-Terena. Com relação à produção de massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, as cultivares mais produtivas, no experimento com boro, foram IAC 18-Xavantes, BR 17-Caiuá, BR 20-Guató e BH 1146. No experimento com zinco, as mais produtivas foram BH 1146, IAC 18-Xavantes e BR 31-Miriti.
Title in English
Supply of boron and zinc for wheat cultivars: in nutritive solution and on two soil types
Abstract in English
Wheat is a very important cereal as human food and in Brazil it stands out as the main winter crop at the South, Southwest and Central West Regions. The crop yield is closely related to the appropriate plant nutrition and microelements are of utmost importance because they are less studied than the major ones. From the hypothesis that production of dry mass and absorption of elements by the plant may vary with the cultivars and the soil types, one understands that more knowledge about these matters would make recommendation of cultivars and dosage of nutrients easier. This is so because the nutrient dosage will be a function of the cultivars needs and the soil type characteristics. Therefore experiments were carried out in greenhouse with two soil types (LRd and LEd) and growth chamber with fourteen wheat cultivars in order to evaluate levels of each element (B and Zn). The experiments with soil were done using the statistical design of complete randomized blocks replicated four times. Each pot with 3 l of soil was considered as a plot. The five levels of each element were: boron = 0.0; 0.4; 0.8; 1.2, and 1.6 mg o B/dm3 of soil as H3BO3 and zinc = 0.0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0, and 4.0 mg of Zn/dm3 of soil as ZnCl2. The cultivar was "BR 18-Terena" with six plants in each pot. The experiments in the growth chamber were carried out in a split-plot complete randomized block design, replicated three times. The four nutrient levels (boron: 0.00; 0.25; 0.50, and 1.25 mg of B/l and zinc: 0.000; 0.025; 0.050, and 0.100 mg of Zn/l) were the plots and the cultivars were the split-plots. Addition of boron and zinc increased the levels of the corresponding element in the soil and in the plants, without significantly influencing the grain yields. In the "Latossolo Roxo distrófico" type of soil the addition of 0.8 mg of B/1 of soil was enough to reach dry mass yields statistically identical to maximum dosage. In the growth chamber the cultivars behaved differently to addition of both boron and zinc. With the boron experiment "BR 10-Formosa" and "BR 17-Caiuá" were the most efficient in the utilization of the nutrient, and with the zinc experiment the most efficient were "Anahuac" and "BR 18-Terena". As for the dry matter yield as shoots and roots, the most productive in the boron experiment, were "IAC 18-Xavantes", "BR 17-Caiuá", "BR 20-Guató" and "BH 1146". With zinc experiment the most productive were "BH 1146", "IAC 18-Xavantes" and "BR 31- Miriti".
 
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Publishing Date
2019-12-20
 
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