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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2020.tde-20200111-133946
Document
Author
Full name
Newton Bueno
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1987
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Quantidade de alumínio no substrato afetando o desenvolvimento a sintomatologia de toxicidade, a concentração e o acúmulo de macro e micronutrientes em seringueira (Hevea spp.)
Keywords in Portuguese
ALUMÍNIO
DESENVOLVIMENTO VEGETAL
FITOTOXICIDADE
NUTRIÇÃO VEGETAL
SERINGUEIRA
SUBSTRATO
Abstract in Portuguese
Com o propósito de comparar os efeitos de doses crescentes de alumínio sobre o desenvolvimento de plantas de seringueira e distinguir o grau de tolerância do grau de toxicidade desse elemento sobre a planta, conduziu-se um experimento usando-se separadamente solução nutritiva de BOOLE-JONES (1957) e soluções de doses de alumínio que se constituíram de 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 ppm de alumínio, em que as plantas passaram vinte e quatro horas na solução nutritiva (sem alumínio) e vinte e quatro horas nas soluções de alumínio correspondentes aos tratamentos acima. As plantas foram coletadas e separadas em raiz, caule, folhas dos verticilos inferiores e folhas d o último verticilo. Determinou-se os acúmulos de nutrientes e as concentrações de nutrientes em função das doses de alumínio em cada parte da planta. Os sintomas visuais de toxicidade de alumínio foram identificados e descritos. Conclui-se: - O desenvolvimento de plantas é afetado a partir de 15 ppm de alumínio na solução; - A concentração e o acúmulo de nitrogênio são favorecidos pela presença d e até 10 ppm de alumínio na solução. A concentração e o acúmulo dos demais macronutrientes diminuem a partir da presença de 5 ppm de alumínio na solução. O alumínio estimula a concentração de ferro e do manganês em todos os níveis enquanto o acúmulo desses nutrientes é afetado a partir de 20 ppm daquele elemento na solução. A concentração de zinco na raiz e folhas do último verticilo é afetada a partir de 15 ppm de alumínio na solução e o acúmulo desse nutriente é afetado a partir de 20 ppm de alumínio na solução; - Sinais de excesso de alumínio em plantas de seringueira aparecem primeiro no sistema radicular e, na parte aérea, é difícil identificar efeito tóxico de alumínio dado a sua semelhança com sintomas visuais de deficiência de fósforo; - Seringueira é planta acumuladora e tolerante à presença de concentrações de alumínio no substrato inferiores a 15 ppm. Níveis superiores de alumínio provocam distúrbios nutricionais na planta
Title in English
Aluminum effected the growth and mineral composition of the young rubber plant (Hevea spp.)
Abstract in English
In Brazil mostly all rubber tree, natural and cultivated conditions occurs on soils containing high levels of aluminum in a toxic form (0.0 meq/l00gr - 3.46 meq/100gr). A study on aluminum behavior in relation to the rubber tree is necessary and urgent. In order to: - Study the effects of five levels of aluminum in the substrate on the growth of young rubber trees; - Detect the toxicity levels of aluminum on the mineral composition (macro and micronutrients) in rubber plant; - Visual symptoms of the aluminum toxicity levels on the leaves of rubber plant to aluminum; - The tolerance of rubber plant to aluminum. Young rubber plants were cultivated in Bolle-Jones (1957) nutrient solution, modified for iron supply. A separate solution of aluminum was prepared by dissolving a thin aluminum foil with HCl lN. From these stock solution the following solutions were prepared: none, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm of aluminum. The plants remained f or 24 hours in nutrient solutions and another 24 hours in the aluminum solutions. These procedure was carried out during 95 days. Both solutions - nutrient and aluminum - were replaced every 7 days. After 95 days, the plants were harvested and divided into top whorl, 2nd and 3rd whorls, stem and roots. The material was dried and analyzed for Al, N, P, K, Ca, Mg. S, Fe, Mn and Zn by routine methods in the laboratory. The author conclude: - The growth of the rubber plants was affected when the concentration of aluminum was 15ppm or more in the solution. - The concentration and accumulation of N was increased until 10 ppm of aluminum in the soluti0n, while the other major nutrients decreased from the presence of 15 ppm. - The concentration and accumulation of the other elements, except zinc, was deprived by 20 ppm of aluminum in the solution. - The concentration in zinc the roots and leaves was affected by 15 ppm of aluminum in the solution. - Clear cut symptoms of the aluminum presence was noted in the roots. The root tip and lateral roots become thickened and turn brown. The leaves shows, a typical phosphorus deficiency in the presence of 20 ppm of aluminum. - The rubber plant grows well in presence of 15 ppm of aluminum. Higher concentrations of aluminum affect the growth and the chemical composition of the tree
 
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2020-01-11
 
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