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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.1983.tde-20210104-162554
Document
Author
Full name
Edson Luiz Mendes Coutinho
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1983
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Efeitos da adubação nitrogenada, fosfatada e potássica na cultura do sorgo sacarino (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), avaliada pela diagnose foliar, produção de colmos e álcool etílico
Keywords in Portuguese
ADUBAÇÃO
COLMOS
DIAGNOSE FOLIAR
ETANOL
FERTILIZANTES NPK
SORGO AÇUCAREIRO
Abstract in Portuguese
Três experimentos foram conduzidos em condiçoes de campo, em um Latossol Vermelho Escuro-fase arenosa de baixa fertilidade. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, empregando-se em cada experimento cinco níveis (0-40-80-160 e 320 kg/ha de N; 0-50-100-200 e 400 kg/ha de P205; 0-25-50-100 e 200 kg/ha de K20). As doses de nitrogênio foram ainda combinadas com as fontes: uréia (aplicada na superfície e incorporada ao solo); nitrato de amônio e sulfato de amônio. Para avaliar o estado nutricional das plantas, colheu-se para análise química, o terço médio (sem a nervura central) das folhas de posição +3 e +4 nos estádios de crescimento vegetativo e florescimento da cultura. Os seguintes elementos foram determinados quimicamente nas folhas: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. No estádio de grão mole colheu-se as duas linhas centrais da área útil de cada parcela, com o objetivo de determinar-se o peso de colmos desfolhados e estimar-se a produção de álcool. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se verificar que as adubações nitrogenada, fosfatada e potássica, promoveram incrementas significativos na produção de colmos e álcool etílico (1/ha). Embora as doses de P e K não tenham promovido variações significativas na produção de álcool por tonelada de colmos, este fato não pode ser estendido ao N, em virtude da dose mais elevada deste elemento (320 kg/ha de N) afetar negativamente esta variável, reduzindo a produção média dia a 64,7 1/t de colmos, efeito este explicado pela diminuição no teor de açúcares totais. Não se verificaram alterações significativas nas produções de colmos e álcool, em função das fontes de N empregadas e dos métodos de aplicação da uréia. Os dados obtidos pela diagnose foliar refletiram as doses de nutrientes aplicadas ao solo, constituindo-se as folhas e épocas estudadas apropriadas para diagnose da nutrição nitrogenada, fosfatada, potássica e sulfurada na cultura do sorgo sacarina.
Title in English
Effects of N, P and K on sweet sorghum fertilization (Sorghum bicolor L., Moench) evaluated by foliar diagnosis, yields of stalks and ethanol
Keywords in English

Abstract in English
Three field experiments on sweet sorghum fertilization were conducted on an Oxisol of low fertility in a randomized complete block design with four replicates (three for the N fertilizer experiment) . The treatments consisted of five N, P and K rates: 0-40-80-160-320 kg/ha of N; 0-50-100-200-400 kg/ha of P205 and 0-25-50-100-200 kg/ha of K20. There were three sources of N fertilizers: urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate. The nitrogen of the different sources was applied part at planting and part side-dressing, 30 days after plant emergence; in the case of urea, it was not only side-dressed, but incorporated, in one of the treatments. In order to evaluate the nutritional status of the plants, leaves + 3 and + 4 positions (respectively the third and the fourth leaves from the top) were sampled for chemical analysis of the middle third (without the central vein). The leaves of 10 randomized plants of each plot were sampled in both the vegetative and flowering stages of growing, corresponding respectively to 45 and 83 days (90 days for the N fertilizer experiment) after plant emergence. The following elements were determined chemically at each stage: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. At the stage of soft grain, two central rows of each plot were harvested in order to determine the weight of the sorghum stalks and to estimate the production of ethanol. According to the results, it can be concludet that: 1) there was no difference between the two methods of urea placement; 2) nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization increased the stalks and ethanol yields (1/ha); 3) although the rates of P e K did not produce significant variations in the ethanol yield per ton of stalks, this fact could not be extended to N, due to the higher rate of this element (320 kg/ha N) having affected this variable negatively, reducing the average yield to 64.7 1/t stalks, this effect being accounted for by the decrease in total sugar content; 4) leaves sampled at the two growing stages were adequate for diagnosis of N, P, K and S nutrition of sweet sorghum.
 
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Publishing Date
2021-01-07
 
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