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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.1993.tde-20210104-165012
Document
Author
Full name
Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1993
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Deficiências de macro e micronutrientes e toxidez de alumínio e de manganês na pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum L.)
Keywords in Portuguese
ALUMÍNIO
DEFICIÊNCIAS MINERAIS DE PLANTAS
FITOTOXICIDADE
MANGANÊS
PIMENTA-DO-REINO
Abstract in Portuguese
A pimenta do reino (Piper nigrum, L.) vem sendo cultivada, em sua maior parte, em áreas com solos de baixa fertilidade natural, caracterizadas por baixa saturação por bases, alta saturação de alumínio e acidez elevada. Essa cultura constitui-se em uma das alternativas econômicas para a região amazônica, num programa de expansão da fronteira agrícola. No intuito de contribuir com alguns aspectos relacionados à nutrição mineral da pimenteira do reino foram conduzidos três experimentos em solução nutritiva com os seguintes objetivos: a) obter um quadro sintomatológico das deficiências de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn; b) verificar os efeitos de Al e de Mn no crescimento e na composição química da pimenteira do reino; c) determinar as concentrações de Al e de Mn que induzem sintomas de toxidez. Para isso, cultivaram-se mudas de pimenteira cultivar Bragantina em solução nutritiva completa, com omissão alternada de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn. Nos experimentos com doses de AL e de Mn usou-se a cultivar Guajarina. O Al foi adicionado à solução nutritiva, nas concentrações de 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 e 40 mg/l, enquanto que o Mn foi fornecido nas concentrações: 0; 10; 20; 30; 40 e 50 mg/l. Após um período compreendido entre 40 e 140 dias, começaram a aparecer os sintomas de deficiência, devido à omissão dos nutrientes, sendo visualizados e identificados. A omissão de nitrogênio foi o tratamento que mais afetou as plantas. Os nutrientes mais absorvidos foram N e K seguindo-se pela ordem decrescente: Ca, Mg, P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Cu. Os teores adequados e deficientes de nutrientes nas folhas foram: N=3,47 e 1,74%; P=0,32 e 0,14%; K=1,95 e 0,56%; Ca=1,76 e 0,77%; Mg=0,58 e 0,43%; S=0,28 e 0,17%; B=34 e 17 ppm; Cu=11 e 6 ppm; Mn= 100 e 31 ppm; Fe=261 e 234 ppm; Zn=53 e 16 ppm. O sintoma inicial de toxidez de Al foi caracterizado por um retardamento no crescimento radicular, com aumento no diâmetro das raízes. Observou-se efeito positivo do Al na produção de matéria seca até a adição de 15 mg Al/ l na solução, o que correspondeu a uma maior absorção de P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe e Al. Concluiu-se que a pimenteira é tolerante à presença de concentrações de Al inferiores a 20 mg/l no substrato. Doses superiores provocam distúrbios nutricionais na planta. O excesso de manganês (30 mg/l) na solução nutritiva reduziu o desenvolvimento das plantas e a absorção de P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe e Zn de P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe e Zn. Observaram-se sintomas de toxidez de manganês a partir de 20 mg/l na solução: clorose e pontos necróticos nas folhas.
Title in English
Deficiences of macro and micronutrients and toxicity of aluminum and manganese in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)
Keywords in English

Abstract in English
Black pepper (Piper nigrum, L.) is usually grown in soils of low natural fertility, and very acidic.The crop represents an economical option for the Amazon region when a program of expanding the agricultural frontier is considered. The following experiments were carried out in order to gain information on the mineral nutrition of black pepper: a) inducing symptoms of deficiency of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn; b) assessment of the effects of Al and Mn on growth and chemical composition; c) determination of concentrations of Al and Mn in the substrate which cause toxicity symptoms. Young plants of the Bragantina cultivar were grown in nutrient solution under the treatments: complete, minus N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. In the experiments designed to verify the effect of rates of Al and Mn the Guajarina cultivar was used. Al in the nutrient solution was added at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 ppm. Mn was supplied at the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm. Symptoms of deficiency due to the omission of nutrients in the solution began to show up between 40 and 140 days after the experiment was started. Lack of nitrogen was the treatment with more drastic effect on growth. Nitrogen and K were the elements taken up in higher proportion, being followed, in decreasing order, by Ca, Mg, P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, B and Cu. Adequate and deficient leaf levels of the elements were found to be: N=3,47 and 1,74%, respectively; P=0,32 and 0,14%; K=1,95 and 0,56%; Ca=1,76 and 0,77%; Mg=0,58 and 0,43%; S=0,28 and 0,17%; B=34 and 17 ppm; Cu=11 and 6 ppm; Mn=l00 and 31 ppm; Fe=261 and 234 ppm; Zn=53 and 16 ppm. The initial symptom of Al toxicity was a slower development of the roots which were thicker than the control ones. Dry weight increased when aluminum supply went from 0 to 15 ppm Al; correspondingly there was a higher uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and Al. It appears that black pepper is tolerant to Al concentration as high as 20 ppm. Higher rates cause nutritional disturbances. Excess Mn (30 ppm) in the nutrient solution caused a reduction in growth and in the uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn. Toxicity symptoms were observed, as chlorosis and necrotic dots in the leaves, when the level of supply was 20 ppm or higher.
 
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Publishing Date
2021-01-07
 
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