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Mémoire de Maîtrise
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.11.1982.tde-20210919-102331
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Júlio César Dias Chaves
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
Piracicaba, 1982
Directeur
Titre en portugais
Concentração de nutrientes nos frutos e folhas e exportação de nutrientes pela colheita durante um ciclo produtivo do cafeeiro (Coffea arábica L. cv. Catuai)
Mots-clés en portugais
CAFÉ
COLHEITA
CONCENTRAÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES
NUTRIÇÃO VEGETAL
PRODUÇÃO
Resumé en portugais
Trabalho realizado em talhão de cafeeiros (Coffea arábica L. Cv. Catuai) H 2077 - 2 - 5 - 39 com 5 anos de idade, localizado no centro experimental do IAPAR em Londrina - PR (23°23? de latitude sul e 51°11? de longitude oeste e 566m de altitude), situado em um Latossolo Roxo distrófico, com os objetivos de (1) determinar a variação de nutrientes nos frutos e folhas do cafeeiro desde o início de formação até a maturação dos frutos; (2) quantificar a extração de nutrientes pelos frutos; (3) conhecer o ritmo de sua extração. As amostragens, em número de 12, foram iniciadas quando os frutos se apresentavam no estadio 'chumbinho' e repetidas a cada 21 dias até a maturação. Foram coletados frutos, folhas de ramos com frutos e folhas de ramos sem frutos. No material coletado foram determinados os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, boro, cobre, manganês e zinco. Foram obtidas curvas representativas das concentrações dos nutrientes nos frutos, nas folhas de ramos com frutos e nas folhas de ramos sem frutos, em função da época (idade) a partir dos dados calculadas através de equações de regressão. Pelos pontos de máximo estimaram-se a produção de matéria seca e as quantidades de nutrientes extraídos pelos frutos. Concluiu-se que: - A produção máxima de matéria seca nos frutos ocorreu aos 217 dias, a partir do início do aparecimento de ?chumbinho?. - As concentrações de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn e Zn foram mais elevadas, nos frutos, no início de sua formação e as concentrações de S foram mais elevadas na sua maturação. - O comportamento do N, P, B e Zn ao longo do desenvolvimento dos frutos, foi individualmente, diferente quando se analisaram folhas de ramos com frutos e folhas de ramos sem frutos. Para o K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu e Mn o comportamento foi semelhante para ambos os tipos de folhas. - Nas folhas de ramos com frutos as concentrações de N, P, K, Mn e Zn foram mais altas no início do desenvolvimento dos frutos enquanto que os teores de Ca, Mg, S, B e Cu foram mais baixos neste mesmo período. - Nas folhas de ramos sem frutos as concentrações de P, K e Mn foram mais altas no início de desenvolvimento dos frutos enquanto que os teores de N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu e Zn foram mais baixos neste mesmo período. A concentração de B permaneceu estável durante todo o período de frutificação. - A avaliação do estado nutricional do cafeeiro (diagnose foliar) para N, P, B e Zn deve ser feita utilizando-se as folhas de ramos com frutos. Para K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu e Mn, pode ser feita utilizando-se tanto folhas de ramos com frutos quanto folhas de ramos sem frutos. - A extração de nutrientes pelos frutos obedeceu a seguinte ordem decrescente: potássio, nitrogênio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, fósforo, manganês, boro, cobre e zinco.
Titre en anglais
Nutrient concentration in fruits and leaves and harvest removal of nutrients in one productive cycle of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuai)
Resumé en anglais
A field experiment was conducted during the 1980-1981 growing season with five year-old coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuai H 2077 - 2 - 5 - 39) to investigate; (1) the nutrient content variations in the leaves and fruits of coffee trees from the early period of fruit formation (pinhead) until the final stage of fruit ripening, (2) the total amount of nutrients extracted by coffee fruits, and (3) the nutrient extraction rhythm by coffee fruits. The experimental field was located at the IAPAR Experimental Station, Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil (23°23? south latitude, 51°11? west Greenwich longitude, and at 566m altitude) where the dystrophic ?roxo? latosol (Oxisol) is the dominant soil type. To determine the change in leaf and fruit nutrient content with time, leaf and fruit samples were collected every 21 day-intervals starting when the coffee fruits were young (pinhead) up to their final stages of complete maturation. A total of twelve samples were collected during the coffee fruit growing season. All samples were divided into leaf and fruit samples from branches with coffee fruits and leaf samples from branches without coffee fruits. These plant material s were dried, weighed, ground and then analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn and Zn. Regression equations are presented relating the nutrient concentration; in fruits and leaves of branches with fruits, and in leaves of branches without fruits as a function of time of sampling (physiological fruit age). The maximum production of dry matter and nutrient extracted by coffee were estimated from the maximum peak period obtained on the curves represented by a regression equation. This study allowed the following conclusions: - The maximum accumulation of dry matter in coffee fruits was obtained at 217 days counted from the early fruit formation (pinhead). - The concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn were higher in young fruits (pinhead), whereas the concentration of S was higher in old fruits (complete maturation). - A plot of nutrient concentration as a function of sampling time indicated that; (1) the concentrations of N, P, B, and Zn in leaves sampled of branches with fruits were differents than those sampled of branches without fruits, and (2) the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn were approximately equal in leaves sampled of both types of branches. - The concentrations of N, P, K, Zn, and Mn in leaves of branches with fruits were higher during the early fruit development, whereas the concentrations of Ca, Mg, S, B, and Cu in leaves of the same type of branches were lower during the early fruit growth than during the final fruit maturation. - The concentrations of P, K, and Mn in leave of branches without fruits were higher during the early fruit development, whereas the concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Zn in leaves of the same type of branche were lower during this fruit stage. The concentration of B in leaves was approximately constant during the fruit growth period. - Analysis of coffee leaves for diagnostic nutrient status indicated that the leaves of branches with coffee fruits best reflected the varying N, P, B and Zn, For diagnosing K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn status, the study has shown that the leaf samples can be taken either from branches with fruits or from branches without fruits. - The order of nutrient extraction by coffee fruits was the following: K > N > Ca > Mg > S > P > Mn > B >Cu> Zn.
 
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Date de Publication
2021-09-19
 
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