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Master's Dissertation
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Patricio Milton Rojas Vergara
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1989
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Plantios clonais e multiclonais em relação a outros materiais genéticos de Eucalyptus grandis HILL ex Maiden na região de Lençóis Paulista-SP
Keywords in Portuguese
CLONAGEM
EUCALIPTO
PLANTIO
Abstract in Portuguese
Para avaliar a resposta silvicultural e a interação genótipo x ambiente, vários materiais genéticos de Eucalyptus grandis com diferentes graus de melhoramento foram testados em dois sítios e medidos aos 4,5 anos de idade. Os materiais genéticos são constituídos por propágulos vegetativos (rametes) de 8 árvores matrizes (ortetes) plantados na forma pura (plantios monoclonais) e misturados (plantios multiclonais). Os outros materiais correspondem a progênies das mesmas árvores matrizes, sementes de pomar clonal e sementes de áreas de produção de sementes. Os ensaios foram instalados na região de Lençóis Paulista-SP em dois tipos de solos: Podzólico Vermelho (Rio Claro) e Areia Quartzosa (Piracema). As variáveis analisadas aos 4,5 anos foram: diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP), altura total (H), área basal por hectare (AB), volume s6lido com casca por hectare (VOL), densidade básica média (DBm) e radial da madeira (DBr) ao nível do DAP e biomassa por hectare (BIO). Foi efetuada a Análise de Variância (ANAVA) com essas variáveis em diferentes níveis: a) ANAVA Conjunta, para detectar diferenças entre tratamentos e interação com o sítio, sem agrupar os materiais genéticos; b) ANAVA entre materiais genéticos, para comparar material propagado sexual e assexualmente e c) ANAVA entre clones com o fim de estimar os componentes de variância genética e ambiental, em diferentes idades, para a característica de altura total. Em relação à análise de variância conjunta, foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre todos os tratamentos e variáveis analisadas nos dois sítios, sendo o de Rio Claro o melhor. Detectou-se a interação tratamentos x sítio, para as variáveis VOL e DB. Para a produção de biomassa (base seca, madeira por ha) o clone G-0269 apresentou os melhores resultados em solo Podzólico (120,6 ton/ha). Na Areia Quartzosa a melhor resposta foi o clone G-0246 com uma biomassa média de 74 ton/ha. Em relação à segunda análise o melhor material genético foi oriundo do pomar de semente clonal, com uma biomassa média de 108,3 ton/ha no solo Podzólico e 59,4 ton/ha no de Areia Quartzosa. As árvores dos plantios clonais e multiclonais apresentaram madeira com densidade básica média inferior às árvores oriundas de matrizes e de semente de pomar clonal, indicando que não houve um efeito provocado pela maior idade fisiológica dos clones na densidade básica média da madeira. O gradiente radial da densidade básica da madeira é maior no solo de Areia Quartzosa, tanto para o material propagado sexual como para o assexual. Finalmente a estimativa dos componentes de variância genética dos clones em diferentes idades para a variável de altura das árvores foi influenciada pela variação intraclonal ou efeito de maturação progressiva (efeito "c").
Title in English
Monoclonal and multiclonal plantations in relation to OTHER GENETIC MATERIALS of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden in the Lencois Paulista Region
Abstract in English
The present work is a study of genetic variation and genotype x environment interaction in clones of eight select trees of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, in which the characteristics of DBH, total height, basal area, solid wood volume with bark, wood basic density at DBH level and wood dry weight at the level of clone means were evaluated at 4.5 year-old. For the clones two kinds of plots were included: monoclonal plots (single clone) and multiclonal plots(mixture of eight clones) and two commercial controls (seedlings from a clonal seed orchard and a seed production area). The trial was established at Lencois Paulista SP in two main soil types: podzolic (Rio Claro Farm) and sandy soils (Piracema Farm). The following variables were included in the analysis at 4,5 year-old: diameter at breast heigth (DAP), total height (H), basal are a (AB), solid wood volume with bark (VOL), average wood basic density (DBm), gradient pith to bark basic density (DBr) and biomass (BIO). The experimental design was the randomized block, with 16 treatments and 3 replications in each type of soil. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was made with the characteristics at different degrees: a) Whole ANOVA which considered both sites and treatments in order to detect site x treatment interaction, b) ANOVA between genetic materials to compare sexual and asexual propagules and c) ANOVA within clones to calculate genetic and environment components of variance of tree height at different ages. In relation to the first analysis, it was detected statistical differences among all treatments and variables in both sites. Clone G - 0269 showed the best performance with a biomass dry weight production of 120.6 ton/ha in the podzolic soil (Rio Claro). In the sandy soil (Piracema) the best clone was G - 0246 with 74 ton/ha. It was also detected an interaction between treatments x soil type for the characteristics solid wood volume and wood basic density. The best genetic material from sexual reproduction was the commercial control from the clonal seed orchard (biomass production: 108.3 ton/ha in podzolic soil and 59.4 ton/ha in sandy soil). Trees from clonal and multiclonal plots had lower basic density than trees from clonal seed orchard. He was inferred that wood basic density was we affected by the physiological age of clones. The gradient pith to bark density of wood was higher in sandy soil, for sexual and asexual genetic material. Finally, it was concluded that the estimation of genetic variance of the tree height average between clones was biased by non-genetic effects or "c" effects.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-11-08
 
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