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Master's Dissertation
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Ralf Andreas Berndt
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1992
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Influência da estrutura da vegetação sobre a avifauna em uma floresta alterada de Araucaria angustifólia e em reflorestamentos em Telêmaco Borba - Paraná
Keywords in Portuguese
AVIFAUNA
MATA DE ARAUCÁRIA
PINHEIRO-DO-PARANA
REFLORESTAMENTO
Abstract in Portuguese
Este trabalho consistiu em uma série de levantamentos da avifauna em cinco áreas de mata nativa e três áreas de reflorestamento, com o objetivo de se determinar as espécies de aves mais comuns encontradas nestes ambientes, e o efeito do reflorestamento sobre estas espécies. Também se procurou verificar quais seriam as características relativas à vegetação que poderiam estar mais correlacionadas com a avifauna. A avifauna foi estudada utilizando-se dois métodos de levantamentos: captura/recaptura com redes neblina, e observações em trajetos. Para o primeiro método foram registradas 66 espécies de aves distribuídas em 18 famílias, sendo que em áreas de reflorestamentos foram constatadas 47 espécies, e nas áreas de matas nativas, 51 espécies. Para o método de observações, foram registradas 114 espécies e 28 famílias, sendo 79 espécies observadas em áreas de reflorestamento, e 100 espécies em áreas de matas nativas. A vegetação foi amostrada, registrando-se 95 espécies arbóreas, pertencentes a 38 famílias. No levantamento botânico foram instaladas duas parcelas de 150x10 metros em cada local, onde foram amostrados alguns parâmetros relativos à estrutura arbórea. Os resultados obtidos através dos dois métodos de levantamento de aves não apresentaram grandes diferenças ao se comparar as áreas de matas nativas com os reflorestamentos. As maiores diferenças foram observadas para o método de captura/recaptura, onde o número de espécies, índice de recaptura e o índice de densidade populacional apresentaram valores superiores nos reflorestamentos. Para a composição florística, a diferença é bem maior em favor das áreas de mata nativa. O número de espécies de árvores, área basal das árvores mortas (árvores em pé) e o índice de diversidade são significativamente superiores na mata nativa. Também foram calculados os índices de similaridade de Jaccard e Sorensen entre todos os locais, tomados dois a dois. Comparando-se todos os parâmetros obtidos para a vegetação com aqueles obtidos nos levantamentos da avifauna, puderam ser constatadas correlações negativas bastante expressivas para altura das árvores com diversidade de aves observadas; densidade de árvores mortas com densidade populacional de aves capturadas e indivíduos recapturados; diversidade da vegetação com densidade populacional de aves capturadas e indivíduos recapturados; densidade da vegetação com índice de densidade populacional de aves capturadas; diversidade de aves observadas com densidade de sub-bosque. Quanto às correlações positivas, estas foram observadas para diversidade de aves observadas com DAP, e para altura média das árvores com índice de densidade de aves capturadas e indivíduos recapturados. A avaliação do efeito que as áreas de reflorestamento estariam causando sobre as populações de aves, indicou que das 114 espécies registradas pelo método de observações, 62 não estariam adaptadas e 45 estariam adaptadas nos reflorestamentos. Para o método de captura/recaptura, das 66 espécies registradas, 29 não estão adaptadas e 32 estão adaptadas em reflorestamentos.
Title in English
Influence of the vegetation structure on the avian community in a disturbed Araucaria angustifolia forest and in plantation forest in Telêmaco Borba - Paraná
Abstract in English
Monte Alegre Farm, owned by Klabin Fabricadora de Papel e Celulose S.A., is located in the central region of the State of Parana, and is mainly a forest enterprise, where large areas of reforestation surround the natural forest maintaining a rich and diversified wildlife. This dissertation is based on several studies of birdlife, in both native and plantation forests with an objective to establish the most commom birds that live in these areas, and the effect of plantation forests upon these birds species. It was also studied what would be the caracteristic of the vegetation most correlated with bird behaviour. Eight places were selected for the field works, five of them set in native forests, two in Araucaria angustifolia planted stands, and one in an Eucalyptus reforestation. The bird behaviour was studied by two methods: mist net and observation. Sixty six different bird species were registered by the first method, fourty seven species were found in the plantation forests, and fifty one species in the native forests. One hundred and fourteen species of twenty eight families were registered through observation, seventy nine in the plantation forests and a hundred species in the native areas. A hundred and twenty eight species of thirty families are the total amount for the whole study. Ninety five tree species of thirty families were registered, during the botanical survey. These species were collected in two sample plots (150m x 10m each) for each study area, where all the trees with DBH greater than 10 cm were tallied (DBH, height and its position in the sample plot). The undergrowth vegetation and the bamboo density were also measured in each sample plot). There was no great differences among the birds found in the native and in the plantation forests. The greatest differences were observed in the first method. The number of different species, the bird recapture index and the population density index presented higher values for the plantation forests. The native forest reflected better vegetation composition with significally higher number of tree species, diversity index and larger basal area for dead trees. There are used two similarity index (Sorensen and Jaccard), in order to define the similarity degree among the areas. For each study group, there was no in the similarity index among the eight studied area, for both methods of study, even when comparing plantation forests. The opposite situation was registered for vegetation similarity index, this was much higher for native areas. One may conclude that plantation forests would present worst effects towards vegetation than towards bird behaviour. Comparing all the obtaining results, it is possible to observe with great distinction the negative correlations between the undergrowth vegetation density and the observed bird diversity, the diversified vegetation and the captured bird population density, the vegetation density and the captured bird population density. On the other hand, positive correlations between the undergrowth vegetation density and the number of captured species, the observed bird diversity and the DBH, the average tree height and the captured bird density. The evaluation of the effects that plantation forests can cause upon the bird population, showed that from the one hundred and fourteen bird species through the observation method, sixty two registered would be suffering harmful effects while forty five would be getting some benefits from this situation. Among the sixty six species registered through the mist net collections method, twenty nine would be suffering harmful effects while thirty two would be getting some benefits.
 
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