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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2009.tde-13102009-141635
Document
Author
Full name
Clarissa dos Santos Goldenberg
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Peres, Lazaro Eustaquio Pereira (President)
Siqueira, Walter Jose
Vitorello, Victor Alexandre
Title in Portuguese
Estudo de variações genéticas naturais de Solanum galapagense possivelmente relacionadas com alterações no hormônio giberelina
Keywords in Portuguese
Cruzamento vegetal
Dormência em plantas
Hormônios vegetais
Nanismo vegetal
Tomate
Variação genética.
Abstract in Portuguese
As espécies selvagens relacionadas ao tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Syn. Solanum lycopersicum L) em latitudes do Sul do Equador ao norte do Chile. Estas condições ambientais contrastantes possibilitaram o aparecimento de grande diversidade genética dentre estas espécies. Lycopersicon cheesmanii f .minor (Hook.f.) C. H. Hill. Syn. Solanum galapagense S. Darwin & Peralta é endêmica das Ilhas Galápagos e possui características peculiares, como porte reduzido, dormência de sementes e folhas bastante recortadas. Estas características também estão presentes em mutantes de tomateiro com deficiência no hormônio giberelina (GA). Mutações em GA como gib1, gib2, gib3 (deficientes) e procera (resposta constitutiva) são amplamente conhecidas em tomateiro. Já os alelos Sp (Self Pruning) e Pts (Petroselinum), presentes em S. galapagense, alteram altura e recorte foliar, respectivamente. Visando entender a natureza destas variações genéticas naturais, foram feitos cruzamentos e retrocruzamentos sucessivos de S. galapagense com a cultivar miniatura de tomateiro Micro-Tom (MT), onde tentou se isolar plantas segregando para características presentes no parental selvagem (dormência, nanismo e maior recorte foliar). Na geração BC1F2 foram selecionados indivíduos com porte menor que MT e folhas com bordos muito recortados. Sementes BC1F3 apresentaram taxa de germinação de 47,6 %, contrastando com o valor 94,5 % apresentado por MT. Entretanto, após aplicação de 100 µM de GA3 a taxa de germinação de BC1F3 foi elevada para 72 %. Em análise de curvas de dose-resposta a GA, as plantas BC1F3 apresentaram menor porte que MT, sendo que este nanismo não foi completamente revertido aplicando-se GA. Em gerações avançadas de retrocruzamentos, constatou-se que a dormência de sementes foi perdida durante as introgressões. Tal constatação leva a crer que o principal componente da dormência de S. galapagense não está ligado ou é efeito pleiotrópico dos genes que respondem pelo seu nanismo ou recorte foliar. A análise de segregação de 278 plantas BC4F2 mostrou que o principal componente do nanismo de S. galapagense segrega na proporção 3:1, sendo a mutação recessiva presente em S. galapagense denominada galapagos dwarf (gdw). Plantas quase isogênicas a MT (geração BC6Fn) foram obtidas carregando os alelos Pts, Sp e gdw. Experimentos comparando-as com MT confirmaram que o alelo Pts aumenta pronunciadamente o recorte foliar de tomateiro e diminui ligeiramente a germinação e o porte das plantas. Tal observação está de acordo com a descoberta recente de que PTS codifica para um gene da classe KNOX, que podem estar envolvidos com GA. Em cominação com Pts, esse alelo parece ter efeito discreto no recorte foliar, mas somente em combinação com Pts. Surpreendentemente, sementes Sp tiveram germinação precoce, comparadas com MT (sp). Já o alelo gdw não mostrou ter efeito na germinação, mas confirmou afetar a altura e o recorte foliar. Esses resultados evidenciam que porte reduzido e folhas bastante recortadas de S. galapagense podem ser atribuídos principalmente a gdw e Pts. A dormência parece ser controlada por outro(s) gene(s) ainda desconhecido(s). Como o novo gene descoberto, GDW, não afeta a germinação, é pouco provável que esteja ligado a GA, podendo ser uma nova classe de genes controlando nanismo.
Title in English
Study of natural genetic variations of Solanum galapagense possibly related to changes in the hormone gibberellin
Keywords in English
Backcross
Dormancy in plants
Genetic variation.
Plant hormones
Plant stunting
Tomato
Abstract in English
The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Syn. Solanum lycopersicum L) related wild species evolved into a wide range of latitudes, from the southern of Ecuador to the northern of Chile. These contrasting environment conditions allowed the emergence of great genetic diversity among these species. Lycopersicon cheesmanii f. minor (Hook.f.) C. H. Hill. Syn. Solanum galapagense S. Darwin & Peralta is endemic in the Galapagos Islands and has characteristics such as small plant size, dormant seeds and profusely divided leaves, being these characteristics also common in tomato gibberellin (GA) mutants. GA mutants such as gib1, gib2, gib3 (deficient), and procera (constitutive) are widely known in tomato. In addition to the afore mentioned mutations, the alleles Sp (Self Pruning) and Pts (Petroselinum), present S. galapagense, lead to changes in plant height and leaf architecture, respectively. Aiming at the understanding of such natural genetic variations, successive crosses and backcrosses of S.galapagense with the miniature tomato cultivar Micro-Tom (MT) were made, attempting to isolate plants segregating characteristics of the parental wild species (dormancy, dwarfism, and increased leaf indentation). In the BC1F2 generation were selected individuals shorter than MT, and with more serrated leaf margins or with more leaflets when compared to MT. BC1F3 seeds showed germination rates of only 46.7 %, contrasting with the 94.5% of MTs germination. However, after the application of 100 µM GA, the rate of germination of BC1F3 was increased to 72 %. Analysis GA dose-responses showed that the BC1F3 plants displayed smaller sizes than the MT plants, and this dwarfism was not completely reversed by GA applications. In advanced backcross generations, it was found that the dormancy of seeds was lost during the process of introgression, since the selection was not for this trait, but only for plant with small size and/or more divided leaves. This finding suggests that the main component of dormancy of S.galapagense is not connected to or is not a pleiotropic effect of the genes for dwarfism and leaf shape. The analyzes of the segregation of 278 BC4F2 plants, already harboring the alleles sp and pts from MT, showed that the main component of the dwarfism of S. galapagense segregates in the proportion 3:1, and then, the recessive mutation present in this specie was named galapagos dwarf (gdw). Plants nearly isogenic to MT (BC6Fn generation) were obtained carrying the alleles Pts, Sp and gdw. Experiments comparing these plants with MT confirmed that the allele Pts produces more divided leaf and leaflets, and showed that this allele has a slight effect in reducing seed germination and plant size. This observation is consistent with the recent discovery that Pts codes for a gene from the KNOX class, which may be involved with the GA hormone. The Sp allele had no direct effect on plant height, but only indirectly due to its indeterminate growth. This allele seems to have a slight effect on leaf shape, but only in combination with Pts. Surprisingly, Sp seeds had an early germination when compared to MT (sp). On the other hand, the allele gdw did not show any effect on germination, but confirmed to affect plant height and leaf architecture. Taken together, these results showed that the reduced plant size and the profusely divided leaves of S. galapagense can be attributed mainly to the effect of Pts and gdw alleles. Regarding seed dormancy, this trait appears to be controlled by other(s) gene(s), yet unknown, although Pts also contributes to this characteristic. Since the new gene that we discovered, GDW, does not affect the germination, it is unlikely that it can be linked the GA hormone, but it may represent a new class of genes controlling an important agronomic trait, the dwarfism.
 
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Publishing Date
2009-10-23
 
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