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Master's Dissertation
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Carlos Gilberto Raetano
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1991
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Resíduos de fentoato e malation em tomate (Licopersicon esculentum Mill) determinados por cromatografia em fase gasosa
Keywords in Portuguese
CROMATOGRAFIA A GÁS
RESÍDUOS DE INSETICIDAS
TOMATE
Abstract in Portuguese
No presente trabalho, procurou-se estudar o comportamento dos resíuos de fentoato (Elsan 50 CE) e malation (Malatol 100 CE) e verificar o efeito da lavagem com água corrente na remoção dos resíduos de fentoato em frutos de tomate. O experimento foi instalado no município de Mombuca, SP, em área de cultivo de tomate tutorado, 45 dias após o transplante das mudas. Os produtos foram aplicados no início do período de maturação dos frutos, ambos nas dosagens de 600 (A), 800(B), 1200(C) e 1600 g i.a./há (D), correspondendo a 48; 64;96 e 128 ml de Elsan 50 CE e 24; 32; 48 e 64 ml de Malatol 100 CE por 100 litros de água, com o auxílio de um pulverizador costal manual. Os frutos foram amostrados com 1, 4, 10, 20 e 40 dias após aplicação. O método de análise utilizado constou da extração com acetona e purificação através de partição em diclorometano. O extrato foi concentrado e injetado em cromatógrafo a gás, equipado com detector de ionização de chama alcalina (DICA). Esta metodologia proporcionou limites de detecção de 0,01 ppm para ambos os produtos. As porcentagens de recuperação em amostras fortificadas, a diferentes concentrações, variaram de 73 a 118% para malation e de 60 a 81% para fentoato. As análises em frutos de tomate revelaram que os resíduos de fentoato degradaram-se mais lentamente, comparativamente aos de malation, onde, no primeiro dia após a aplicação, foram inferiores à tolerância estabelecida pela legislação em tomate (3 ppm), independente da dosagem usada. Nas condições experimentais os resíduos de fentoato em frutos de tomates variaram de 0,01 – 0,75 ppm (A); 0,02 – 1,40 ppm (B); 0,06 – 1,20 ppm (C) e de 0.01 – 2,17 ppm (D). Os valores de meia-vida de degradação e de persistência para fentoato foram de 1 - 2 e 3 - 6 dias, respectivamente para dosagens estudadas. Não se observou diferença significativa entre níveis médios de resíduos de fentoato provenientes de frutos lavados e não lavados aos 3 dias após uma pulverização de 1200 g i.a./ha, demonstrando, dessa maneira, que uma maior parte dos resíduos já estava adsorvido à cutícula dos frutos submetidos à lavagem.
Title in English
Residue determination of phenthoate and malathion by gas chromatography in tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)
Abstract in English
The objective of the present research was to study the behaviour of phenthoate (Elsan 50 CE) and malathion (Malatol 100 CE) residues was well as to verify the effect of washing tomato fruits for removing phenthoate residues. The experiment was set in a tomato field located in Mombuca, State of São Paulo, Brazil, after 45 days from seedlings transplantation. Dosages of 600 (A), 800 (B), 1200 (C) and 1600 g a.i./ha (D) of both products, corresponding to 48; 64; 96 and 128 ml of Elsan 50 CE per 100 litre of water, and 24; 32; 48 and 64 ml of Malatol 100 CE, were sprayed at the beginning of the ripening period of fruits. Samples of 15 fruits each were collected 1, 4, 10, 20 and 40 days after products spraying. The utilized procedure consisted of extraction with acetone and purification by partition with dichloromethane. The purified extract was concentrated and injected into a gas chromatograph equipped with alkaly flame ionization detector (AFID). The limits of detection were of 0,01 ppm for both products. The recovery percentage from fortified samples varied from 73 to 118% for malathion and from 60 to 81% for phenthoate. Accordid to the official tolerance limits established by “Portaria SNVS No. 10 de 1985 – Ministério da Saúde”, malathion residues were below tolerance (3 ppm) from the first sampling date. Residue levels of phenthoate in tomatoes in different treatments ranged from 0,01 – 0,75 ppm (A); 0,02 – 1,40 ppm (B); 0,06 – 1,20 (C) and 0,01 – 2,17 ppm (D). The fruit analysis showed that phenthoate residues are more persistent than those of malathion. The degradation and the persistence half-lives were 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 days for phenthoate, respectively. The difference between average residue levels of phenthoate in tomatoes washed and unwashed, 3 days after spraying with 1200 g a.i./ha, were not statistically significative demonstrating that the great part of phenthoate residues were already adsorbed by the peel of tomato fruits submitted to washing.
 
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