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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2019.tde-20191220-112437
Document
Author
Full name
Cesáreo Rodriguez Hernandez
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1995
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Efeito de extratos aquosos de Meliaceae no desenvolvimento de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Keywords in Portuguese
DESENVOLVIMENTO
EXTRATOS
INSETICIDAS BIOLÓGICOS
LAGARTA-DO-CARTUCHO
MELIÁCEAS
Abstract in Portuguese
Com o objetivo de encontrar plantas com atividade inseticida em relação à Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), avaliaram-se os extratos aquosos de caules e folhas, e de alguns frutos e sementes de 15 meliáceas. Os extratos à 5% (5 g de planta/100 ml de água) foram adicionados à dieta artificial (na proporção de 20%). Os parâmetros avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal e peso de pupas. Utilizando-se os extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach e de Trichilia pallida à 1, 5 e 10%, determinou-se um índice de crescimento, com base na viabilidade dos seis ínstares larvais, da pré-pupa e da pupa. Em 4 espécies de plantas que apresentaram efeitos subletais se avaliou quantitativamente a nutrição durante toda a fase larval. Para avaliação da inibição alimentar e da atratividade, em lagartas de quarto e primeiro ínstar, respectivamente, foram utilizados discos de folha de milho tratados com extratos aquosos, avaliando-se o consumo foliar e o número de lagartas atraídas. Embora nenhuma espécie tenha sido mais tóxica que as sementes de Azadirachta indica, todas as plantas, com exceção de Guarea kunthiana e Trichilia elegans, apresentaram atividade tóxica. Os caules de Cabralea canjerana, as sementes de A. indica, Cedrela fissilis e Cedrela odorata, os caules e folhas de T. pallida, e os caules, folhas e frutos de M. azedarach provocaram alta mortalidade larval (superior a 84%). Os caules de Trichilia catigua, as folhas de C. canjerana, Swietenia macrophylla, Trichilia casaretti e Toona ciliata e os frutos de Guarea guidonia e M. azedarach inibiram a alimentação larval. Os caules de C. fissilis, C. odorata e Trichilia clausenii, as folhas de Guarea macrophylla, S. macrophylla e T. ciliata, e os frutos de G. guidonia e M. azedarach inibiram o crescimento larval. Os extratos aquosos de folhas de M. azedarach e T. pallida a 5 e 10% inibiram drasticamente o crescimento de S. frugiperda, sendo pouco pronunciado este efeito a 1%. O extrato de frutos de M. azedarach provocou o alongamento da fase larval, mas menor consumo de dieta e, em conseqüência, menor peso do inseto. Em caules de T. clausenii, o maior consumo de alimento não provocou maior ganho de peso. As menores eficiências de conversão do alimento foram constatadas nos caules de T. clausenii e folhas de S. macrophylla. Os extratos de A. indica (semente), G. guidonia (fruto), S. macrophylla (folha) e T. catigua (caule) dificultaram o estabelecimento e reduziram o consumo foliar das lagartas de S. frugiperda em discos de folhas de milho.
Title in English
Effect of aqueous extracts from Meliaceae in the development of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Abstract in English
Insecticidal activity of aqueous extracts from stems and leaves, and from some fruits and seeds of 15 Meliaceae plants were evaluated in relation to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). The extract at concentration of 5% (5 g of plant/100 ml of water) was incorporated into the artificial diet (in the proportion of 20%). The biological parameters evaluated were the length and viability of larval and pupal stages and the pupal weight. A growth index based on the viability of the six instars, pre-pupa and pupa of S. frugiperda was determined with the extract from leaves of Melia azedarach and Trichilia pallida at 1, 5 and 10%. Quantitative nutrition of the entire larval stage was evaluated with 4 species of plants that showed sub-lethal effects on S. frugiperda. Corn leaf disks were treated with aqueous extract, dried and offered to larvae of first instar to measure the attractiveness, and to larvae of forth instar to measure the leaf consumption. None of the plants tested showed higher insecticidal activity than seeds of Azadirachta indica; however, except for Guarea kunthiana and Trichilia elegans, all plants showed some toxicity. The stems of Cabralea canjerana, the seeds of A. indica, Cedrela fissilis and Cedrela odorata, the stems and leaves of T. pallida, and the stems, leaves and fruits of M. azedarach showed high larval mortality (greater than 84%). The stems of Trichilia catigua, the leaves of C. canjerana, Swietenia macrophylla, Trichilia casaretti and Toona ciliata, and the fruits of Guarea guidonia and M. azedarach inhibited the feeding by S. frugiperda larvae. The stems of C. fissilis, C. odorata and Trichilia clausenii, and the leaves of Guarea macrophylla, S. macrophylla and T. ciliata, and the fruits of G. guidonia and M. azedarach inhibited the larval growth. Aqueous extract of leaves from M. azedarach and T. pallida at 5 and 10% showed significant negative effect on S. frugiperda larval growth, but only a slight effect at 1%. The extract from fruits of M. azedarach prolonged the larval stage of S. frugiperda; however the food intake was low, and thus the pupal weight was reduced. With extract from stems of T. clausenii, the higher food intake did not reflect on higher weight gain. The lowest food conversion indexes were found in the extracts from stems of T. clausenii and leaves of S. macrophylla. The extracts from A. indica (seed), G. guidonia (fruit), S. macrophylla (leaf) and T. catigua (stem) were fagodeterrent and decreased the leaf consumption by S. frugiperda larvae on corn leaf disks.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-12-20
 
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