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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.2019.tde-20191220-143256
Document
Author
Full name
Paulo Cesar Bogorni
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2003
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Efeito de extratos aquosos de Trichilia spp. sobre o desenvolvimento de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) em milho
Keywords in Portuguese
EXTRATOS
INSETICIDAS BIOLÓGICOS
LAGARTA-DO-CARTUCHO
MELIÁCEAS
MILHO
Abstract in Portuguese
O uso de plantas inseticidas vem ressurgindo como uma promissora ferramenta de controle de pragas, visando reduzir a dependência dos produtos sintéticos, prejudiciais ao homem e ao ambiente. Nesse trabalho, foi avaliada a eficiência de extratos aquosos de seis espécies de Trichilia (T. casaretti, T. catigua, T. claussenii, T. elegans, T. pallens e T. pallida) , em comparação com o extrato aquoso de sementes de Azadirachta indica (nim) sobre Spodoptera frugiperda em condições de laboratório e de campo. Inicialmente, foi avaliado o efeito dos extratos, a 5% (peso/volume), de ramos e folhas das seis espécies na sobrevivência e peso larval ao quinto dia e, a seguir, foi determinado o efeito dos mesmos extratos, a 1 %, na sobrevivência, duração e peso das fases larval e pupal. Foi avaliado ainda o efeito dos referidos extratos sobre o consumo alimentar de lagartas de quarto instar. Com base nesses testes, foram selecionados os extratos mais eficientes (ramos e folhas de T. pallens e de ramos de T. pallida) para avaliação da eficiência em condições de campo em comparação com o inseticida lufenuron (Match® CE), o óleo de nim e o extrato aquoso de sementes de nim. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que para as seis espécies de Trichilia testadas, ao menos uma das suas estruturas (ramos ou folhas) afeta o desenvolvimento de S. frugiperda. À concentração de 5%, constatou-se que: o extrato de folhas de T. pallens causa 100% de mortalidade larval até o 5° dia, efeito semelhante ao causado pelo extrato de nim; os extratos de ramos e frutos (verdes e maduros) de T. pallens, e de ramos e folhas de T. pallida, embora menos eficientes que os extratos de folhas de T. pallens e de sementes de nim, também reduzem a sobrevivência e o peso larval dessa praga. À concentração de 1 %, verificou-se que os extratos de ramos de T. pallida e de folhas de T. pallens são os mais eficientes, dentre as seis espécies de Trichilia testadas, embora os extratos de folhas de T. pallida, T. catigua, T. casaretti e T. elegans e os extratos de ramos de T. claussenii e T. pallens também afetem o desenvolvimento do inseto; os extratos de folhas de T. catigua e T. claussenii, e de ramos de T. catigua inibem a alimentação de lagartas, enquanto que o extrato de ramos de T. elegans é fago-estimulante. Em condições de campo, os extratos de folhas de T. pallens e de sementes de A. indica, a 6,7%, embora menos eficientes que o inseticida sintético lufenuron, reduzem o dano das lagartas à cultura do milho.
Title in English
Effect of Trichilia spp. aqueous extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) development on corn
Abstract in English
The use of insecticidal plants has increased its importance in pest control, aiming to reduce the chemicals dependence, that prejudice the man and environmental. In this research, the efficacy of aqueous extracts from six Trichilia species (T. casaretti, T. catigua, T. claussenii, T. elegans, T. pallens e T. pallida) , on S. frugiperda was evaluated at laboratory and field conditions, comparing it with the aqueous extract from Azadirachta indica (neem) seeds. Initially, it was evaluated the extract effects at 5% (weigh/volume) of twigs and leaves from the six species on survival and larval weight at the fifth day after treatment. And, after that, the effect of the same extracts at 1 % on survival, duration and weight of pupal and larval stages was determined. Also the extract effect on food consumption of fourth instar larvae was evaluated. Based on these assays, the most efficient extracts (twigs and leaves of T. pallens and T. pallida) were selected to have their efficiency evaluated in field conditions comparing with the chemical lufenuron (Match® CE), neem Gil and aqueous extract of neem seeds. The results allowed to conclude that in the six Trichilia species tested, at least one of their structures (twigs or leaves) affects the S. frugiperda development. At 5% the extract from leaves of T. pallens cause larval mortality of 100% until five days after treatment, similar effect showed by neem extract; the extracts from twigs and fruits (unripe and ripe) of T. pallens, and twigs and leaves of T. pallida, although less efficient than the extracts from leaves of T. pallens and neem seeds, also reduce the larval weight and survival. At 1 % the extracts from twigs of T. pallida and leaves of T. pallens are the most efficient, among the six Trichilia spp., although the extracts from leaves of T. pallida, T. catigua, T. casaretti and T. elegans and the extracts from twigs of T. claussenii and T. pallens also affect the insect development; the extracts from leaves of T. catigua and T. claussenii, and twigs of T. catigua inhibit the food consumption, while the twigs of T. elegans stimulate it. In field conditions, the extracts from leaves of T. pallens and A. indica seeds, at 6,7%, although less efficient that the chemical lufenuron, also reduce the damage caused by larvae in the corn.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-12-20
 
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