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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.11.1994.tde-20210104-195819
Document
Author
Full name
Luiz Antonio da Silveira Melo
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 1994
Supervisor
Title in Portuguese
Biologia de Euophrys sutrix Holmberg, 1874 (Araneae, Salticidae) e suscetibilidade da espécie a acaricidas utilizados na citricultura
Keywords in Portuguese
ACARICIDAS
ARANHAS
BIOLOGIA
POMARES DE CITROS
TOXICIDADE
Abstract in Portuguese
As aranhas são consideradas importantes predadores de insetos e seus níveis populacionais são utilizados como parâmetros na determinação da seletividade de defensivos aos inimigos naturais das pragas. Entretanto, não tem sido dada atenção às espécies de aranhas envolvidas e às suas características biológicas, que podem influenciar a ação dos pesticidas. A biologia e a etologia de Euophrys sutrix Holmberg, 1874 foi estudada, após a determinação da família Salticidae com a mais abundante em pomares cítricos do Estado de São Paulo. O estudo consistiu de observações do desenvolvimento pós-embrionário da espécie e de sua capacidade reprodutiva. Em adição, conduziram-se testes para determinar a toxicidade de acaricidas a E. sutrix. Estabeleceu-se a criação da espécie a partir de ovos coletados em Jaguariúna, SP. Posteriormente incluíram-se na criação, ninfas capturadas na mesma região. Ocorreram as fases de pré-larva, larva e ninfa, constatando-se, para esta, um total de 8 ecdises. As aranhas permaneceram inativas durante cerca da metade da fase ninfal que durou 208 dias. A mortalidade ninfal foi 87%, causada principalmente por deficiência nutricional que afetou a ecdise. A fertilidade e longevidade dos adultos também foram afetadas. Cada fêmea fértil depositou 287 ovos, que tiveram 33% de viabilidade. A primeira postura foi a mais viável, originando 66% dos descendentes. O ciclo de vida, desde a emergência até a morte dos adultos, durou 368 dias, enquanto que o período de ovo a ovo, durou 287 dias. Entre os acaricidas testados, dicofol, óxido de fembutatina e propargite foram inócuos a E. sutrix; bifentrim foi o mais tóxico à espécie.
Title in English
Biology of Euophrys sutrix (Araneae, Salticidae) and its susceptibility to acaricides used in citrus orchards
Keywords in English

Abstract in English
Spiders are considered important predators of insects, and their population levels constitute important parameters in the determination of the selectivity of pesticides to natural enemies of pests. The biology and the ethology of Euophrys sutrix Holmberg, 1874 was studied in this work. This species belongs to the family Salticidae, the most abundant group of spiders in citrus orchards in the State of São Paulo. The study consisted of observations on the development of the immatures and the reproduction capacity of the selected species. In addition, some tests were also conducted to determine the toxicity of different pesticides to E. sutrix. A colony of E. sutrix was initially established with eggs collected in Jaguariuna, State of São Paulo. Later, nymphs were collected in the same region and added to the stock colony. The first post-embrionic stage was the pre-larva, which was followed by the larva and the nymphal stage which underwent 8 molts. Nymphs passed through quiescent periods which lasted about half the combined duration of the nymphal stage of 208 days. Nymphal mortality was 87%, caused mainly by nutricional defficiency that affected molting. Adult fertility and longevity were also affected. Each fertile female laid 287 eggs, which had a viability of 33%. The first batch of eggs laid was the most viable, producing 66% of the total progeny. The life cycle from egg hatching to death of the adults lasted 368 days, whereas the period from egg to egg lasted 287 days. Among the pesticides tested, dicofol, fembutatine oxide and propargite showed no detrimental effect to E. sutrix; bifenthrin showed the highest toxicity to that species.
 
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Publishing Date
2021-01-07
 
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