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Master's Dissertation
Full name
Ricardo Ramos Cabrera
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Piracicaba, 2000
Title in Portuguese
Ação dos extratos das madeiras de peroba-rosa, Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae); cinamomo, Melia sp. (Meliaceae); itaúba, Mezilaurus sp. (Lauraceae) e ipê, Tabebuia sp.(Bignoniaceae) nos cupins-de- madeira-seca, Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)
Keywords in Portuguese
Abstract in Portuguese
Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a ação de extratos de clorofórmio e etanol das madeiras de peroba-rosa (Aspidosperma polyneuron), cinamomo (Melia sp.), itaúba (Mezilaurus sp.) e ipê (Tabebuia sp.) nos cupins-de-madeira-seca (Cryptotermes brevis). Os extratos foram obtidos no destilador Soxhlet na proporção de 13.3g de pó-de-serra para 200ml de solvente, para cada tipo de madeira, e diluídos na concentração de 0,1g de extrato para 1ml dos respectivos solventes. Discos de papel-filtro receberam 0,15ml de extrato diluído e foram expostos aos cupins por 30 dias. Foram analisados o consumo do substrato (papel-filtro), mortalidade dos cupins (número de cupins mortos) e a influência destes extratos nos simbiontes intestinais e na muda destes insetos. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo método de Kruskal-Wallis. A maior fagoinibição foi obtida com os extratos de cinamomo, em solvente clorofórmio, e de itaúba e ipê, ambos em etanol. A maior toxicidade foi observada com os extratos de ipê, em ambos os solventes, e de itaúba, em etanol. Os extratos de ipê causaram eliminação total dos simbiontes, enquanto que os extratos das outras madeiras eliminaram apenas os simbiontes xilófagos (Calonympha sp. e Devescovina sp.). Os extratos estudados não tiveram ação na muda dos cupins. Conclui-se que as madeiras de peroba-rosa, cinamomo, itaúba e ipê apresentaram substâncias com propriedades fagoinibidoras e tóxicas aos cupins-de-madeira-seca.
Title in English
Effects of extracts of the woods Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Melia sp. (Meliaceae), Mezilaurus sp. (Lauraceae) and Tabebuia sp. (Bignoniaceae) against drywood termites, Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)
Abstract in English
Wood samples of Aspidosperma polyneuron, Melia sp., Mezilaurus sp. and Tabebuia sp. were extracted with chloroform or ethanol and tested for their activity against the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis. The extracts were obtained in Soxhlet with 13,3g of sawdust of each wood species were extracted with 200ml of solvent. The extracts were diluted at a concentration of 0,1g per 1 ml of solvent, prior to application to cellulose filter papers used to feed termites for 30 day period. Diluted extracts were applied at a rate of 0.15ml per filter paper. The following parameters were measured: substrate consumption, termite mortality and the effects of the extracts on the symbiont microbiota of termite guts. Results were statistically analized by the Kruskal-Wallis method. All extracts were either toxic or fagoinibidory to the termites. The strongest fagoinhibition occurred with the extracts from Melia sp. in chloroform, Mezilaurus sp. in ethanol and Tabebuia sp. in ethanol. Tabebuia sp. extracts with both solvents and ethanol extracts of Mezilaurus sp. caused the highest mortality of termites. Termite symbionts were totally eliminated only the xilophagus symbionts. Termite moult was unaffected by the extracts. In conclusion, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the four wood species contain compounds toxic to termites and their symbionts.
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