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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.11.2017.tde-10082017-083638
Document
Author
Full name
Álisson Rangel Albuquerque
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Tommasiello Filho, Mario (President)
Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz
Scheel-Ybert, Rita
Schellekens, Judith
Torrado, Pablo Vidal
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização antracológica, físico-química, isotópica e molecular da Terra Preta do Sítio Arqueológico Porto, Santarém, PA
Keywords in Portuguese
Antracologia
Arqueologia amazônica
Isótopos estáveis
Pirólise
Terra Preta Arqueológica
Abstract in Portuguese
Evidências arqueológicas indicam que as atividades humanas antigas nos habitats amazônicos transformaram significativamente a paisagem na vizinhança dos assentamentos. Um registro marcante são os solos afetados pelo homem pré-histórico e que apresentam cor escura, restos de material arqueológico (fragmentos cerâmicos e de artefatos líticos), fragmentos de carvão vegetal e alta fertilidade. O Sítio Porto Santarém, localizado a margem do rio Tapajós, possui todas as evidências desta ocupação e, por isso, foi escolhido como o objeto deste estudo. O objetivo aqui proposto consiste correlacionar os diferentes métodos analíticos e de interpretação (biológicos, isotópicos, moleculares e de imagem) para compreender os fatores de formação da Terra Preta no Sítio PA-ST-32. Os resultados indicaram um predomínio de cobertura florestal (C3) em todas as escavações durante a faixa de tempo abordada (400±30 a 3.830±30 anos AP), com enriquecimento isotópico em profundidade, como resultado, provavelmente, da dieta dos indígenas. Também, verificou-se um teor maior de carbono na TPI em relação ao perfil sem a camada antrópica, mas que mostraram valores similares (TIC%) de poliaromáticos oriundos da queima (carvão pirogênico). Foram identificados 100 fragmentos de carvão, onde 62% pertencem aos gêneros representativos da família Fabaceae.
Title in English
Anthrachological, physico-chemical, isotopic and molecular characterization of the Black Earth of the Porto Archaeological Site, Santarém, PA
Keywords in English
Amazon Black Earth
Amazonian archeology
Anthracology
pyrolysis
Stable isotopes
Abstract in English
Archaeological evidence indicates that ancient human activities in Amazonian habitats have significantly transformed the landscape in the vicinity of the settlements. A striking record are the soils affected by prehistoric man and which are dark in color, remains of archaeological material (ceramic fragments and lytic artifacts), fragments of charcoal and high fertility. The Porto Santarém Site, located on the banks of the Tapajós River, has all the evidence of this occupation and, therefore, was chosen as the object of this study. The objective here is to correlate the different analytical and interpretation methods (biological, isotopic, molecular and image) to understand the formation factors of Black Earth in the PA-ST-32 site. The results indicated a predominance of forest cover (C3) in all excavations during the time range (400 ± 30 to 3,830 ± 30 years BP), with deep isotopic enrichment, probably as a result of indigenous diet. Also, a higher carbon content was observed in TPI in relation to the profile without the anthropic layer, but they showed similar values (TIC%) of polyaromatics from the burning (pyrogenic charcoal). 100 charcoals fragments were identified, where 62% belong to the representative genus of the Fabaceae family.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-08-16
 
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