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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.11.2016.tde-28092016-184803
Document
Author
Full name
Bruno Oliveira de Almeida
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Milan, Marcos (President)
Fenner, Paulo Torres
Romanelli, Thiago Liborio
Title in Portuguese
Viabilidade do aproveitamento de resíduos florestais
Keywords in Portuguese
Energia de biomassa
Resíduos florestais
Sistemas mecanizados
Viabilidade econômica e energética
Abstract in Portuguese
O setor florestal apresenta impacto na economia do Brasil, com valores significativos no PIB, em exportações e geração de empregos. O país possui cerca de 7,74 milhões de hectares de florestas plantadas, o que corresponde a apenas 0,9% do território nacional. Os plantios podem ser realizados em áreas novas ou em áreas que já possuíam eucalipto no ciclo anterior. Neste caso, os tocos remanescentes representam um problema, dificultando o tráfego homogêneo de máquinas e influindo na qualidade das operações florestais. O aproveitamento dos resíduos, por meio da retirada dos tocos remanescentes, pode contribuir para minimizar esses problemas, trazendo benefícios econômicos e energéticos. Com isso, o objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em analisar a viabilidade operacional, econômica e energética de um sistema mecanizado florestal para o aproveitamento de resíduos florestais (toco). Para tanto, um modelo, em planilha eletrônica, foi desenvolvido. Os dados referentes à capacidade de trabalho dos equipamentos envolvidos foram obtidos por meio de um estudo de tempos e movimentos das operações mecanizadas de destoca, baldeio, processamento e transporte. O modelo foi empregado para avaliação de cenários e identificar variáveis críticas. Os resultados evidenciaram que o sistema mecanizado empregado para a destoca e retirada dos resíduos, tocos e raízes, é viável operacional e economicamente e tem um desempenho energético favorável. As restrições do uso desse sistema referem-se à área mínima e a distância de transporte, e que as variações na produtividade, no preço de venda da biomassa e na capacidade de campo operacional impactam sensivelmente na viabilidade econômica do projeto.
Title in English
Viability of the use of forest waste
Keywords in English
Biomass energy
Energy and economic viability
Forest waste
Mechanized systems
Abstract in English
The forest sector plays an important role in Brazil's economy, with significant share in the GDP, exports and job creation. Brazil has about 7.74 million ha of planted forests, accounting for only 0.9% of the national territory. Plantations may occur in new areas or in areas that already had a previous eucalypt cycle. In this case, the remaining stumps represent a problem hindering the smooth traffic of machinery and affecting forest operations. The use of waste by removing the remaining stumps can help to minimize these problems, bringing economic and energy benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the operational, economic and energy viability of a mechanized-harvest forest system for the use of forest waste (stumps). To this end, a model was developed in spreadsheet. The data related to the work capacity of the equipment involved were obtained by means of a time and motion study of mechanized operations of stumps removal, carrying, processing and transportation. The model was used to evaluate scenarios and identify critical variables. The results showed that the mechanized system used for stumps removal, stumps and roots, is operationally and economically viable and has a favorable energy performance. Restrictions of using this system refers to the minimum area and distance of transport. In addition, variations in productivity, selling price of biomass and field operational capacity significantly affect the economic viability of the project.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-10-13
 
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