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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.14.2017.tde-31052017-165938
Document
Author
Full name
Plinio Francisco Jaqueto
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Trindade, Ricardo Ivan Ferreira da (President)
Font, Eric Claude
Karmann, Ivo
Title in English
Magnetism of a speleothem from Midwest Brazil and paleoclimatic implications
Keywords in English
environmental magnetism.
paleoclimate
rock magnetism
soil
speleothem magnetism
Abstract in English
This thesis provides a detailed study of environmental magnetism in a speleothem. It focuses on a stalagmite from Pau DAlho cave (15°1220S, 56°4841W) located in Rosário dOeste, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. This speleothem grew during the past 1355 years, with average growth rate of ~168 mm/ka and encompasses two key events in the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), major dry and wet, respectively. The rock magnetic experiments conducted, include isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) acquisition curves, thermal demagnetization of three-axis IRM acquisition, hysteresis loops, first order reversal curves (FORC) and low-temperature SQUID magnetometry experiments. The main magnetic remanence carriers in the stalagmite are magnetite and goethite, with a nearly constant relative proportion. Magnetite has remanent coercivities between 14-17 mT, and its magnetic properties are similar to those produced by pedogenic processes. Magnetic remanence is broadly correlated with carbon and oxygen isotope data throughout most of the speleothem, suggesting that precipitation and soil dynamics above the cave exert a strong control on the input of magnetic minerals into the Pau dAlho cave system. Dry periods like the MCA are associated with less stable soils that result in higher mineral fluxes carried into karst systems via groundwater, while conversely, colder and wetter periods like the LIA are associated with soils topped by denser vegetation that are more capable of retaining micrometer-scale pedogenic minerals, and thus reduce mineral fluxes into karst environments.
Title in Portuguese
Magnetismo de um espeleotema do Centro-Oeste do Brasil e suas implicações paleoclimáticas.
Keywords in Portuguese
magnetismo ambiental.
magnetismo de espeleotema
magnetismo de rochas
paleoclima
solo
Abstract in Portuguese
Esta tese fornece um estudo detalhado do magnetismo ambiental de espeleotemas. Este estudo é feito em uma estalagmite da caverna Pau D'Alho (15 ° 12'20 "S, 56 ° 48'41" W), localizado em Rosário d'Oeste, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Este espeleotema cresceu durante os últimos 1355 anos, com taxa média de crescimento de ~ 168 mm/ka e engloba dois eventos climáticos do Sistema de Monção Sul-americano (SMSA), a Anomalia Climática do Medieval (ACM) e a Pequena Idade do Gelo (PIG), eventos secos e molhados, respectivamente. Os experimentos de magnetismo de rocha incluem: magnetização remanecte isotermal (MRI), ciclos de histerese, magnetização remanente anisterética (MRA), desmagnetização térmica em três eixos, first order reversal curves (FORC) e experimentos de baixa temperatura. Os principais portadore magnéticos na estalagmite são magnetita e goethita, com uma proporção relativa quase constante. A magnetita tem coercividades entre 14-17 mT, e as suas propriedades magnéticas são semelhantes às produzidas por processos pedogênicos. As remanências magnéticas são amplamente correlacionadas com dados de isótopos de carbono e oxigênio durante o registro, sugerindo que a precipitação e a dinâmica do solo acima da caverna exerce um forte controle na entrada de minerais magnéticos no sistema de cavernas Pau d'Alho. Períodos secos como o ACM estão associados a solos menos estáveis, que resultam em maiores fluxos de minerais detríticos carreados para o sistema de cavernas, ao passo que, inversamente, os períodos frios e chuvosos como a LIA estão associados a solos cobertos pela vegetação mais densa que são mais capazes de reter minerais pedogênicos de escala micrométrica, e, assim, diminuir os fluxos de minerais detríticos para o sistema de cavernas.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-06-05
 
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