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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.16.2005.tde-13102005-115856
Document
Author
Full name
Francisco Borges Filho
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2005
Supervisor
Committee
Minami, Issao (President)
Agostino, Mario Henrique Simao D
Silva, Jose Carlos Placido da
Toledo, Benedicto Lima de
Valle, Marco Antonio Alves do
Title in Portuguese
O desenho e o canteiro no Renascimento Medieval(séculos XII e XIII): indicativos da formação dos arquitetos mestres construtores
Keywords in Portuguese
Euclides
Ferramentas e instrumentos
Geometria prática
Mestres construtores
Villard de Honnecourt
Vitrúvio
Abstract in Portuguese
A pesquisa enfoca os séculos XII e XIII, conhecidos como o período do Renascimento Medieval. É a época do auge da produção da arquitetura gótica, onde as inovações construtivas aparecem e se consolidam. É na óptica dos procedimentos práticos e dos conhecimentos geométricos que estão as principais vertentes da pesquisa. O tipo e a profundidade do conhecimento da geometria – que era considerada o coração do ofício do pedreiro medieval – são pesquisados junto às obras de Euclides (Os Elementos) e Vitrúvio (De Architectura), demonstrando a intensidade de sua difusão junto aos mestres por toda a Idade Média. Com os cadernos de Villard de Honnecourt temos a prova da utilização dos manuais da Geometria Prática – Geometria Fabrorum – pelos arquitetos mestres construtores. A formação dos arquitetos se dava fora da educação formal. Era através das tradições do ofício quase sempre ensinadas oralmente e através de textos antigos, acessíveis por traduções em língua vernácula que ela acontecia, principalmente dentro das Corporações. Conhecimentos transmitidos através de clérigos que dominavam o latim, também foram importantes meios para o enriquecimento de procedimentos e habilidades tradicionais, que seguiam sendo disseminadas oralmente. Somente ao final da Idade Média, alguns mestres alemães dispõem-se a escrever e desvelar o segredo dos pedreiros. Todas as escolhas são privativas do arquiteto mestre construtor, o que comprova a existência do projeto medieval que com suas diferentes formas de representação e execução, variados instrumentos e ferramentas, materializou um espaço arquitetônico coerente com o conhecimento geométrico e a tecnologia disponível.
Keywords in English
Euclides
Master Builders
Practical Geometry
tools and instruments
Villard de Honnecourt
Vitruvio
Abstract in English
This study concentrates on the XII and XIII century. The period is known as the Medieval Renaissance and is considered the time of the prime production of gothic architecture, with the appearance and consolidation of innovations in construction techniques. The main focus of this research is on practical procedures and know-how on geometry of the period. The type and depth of knowledge in geometry, considered at the time, the heart of the medieval stone masons profession, are studied in conjunction with the writings of Euclid (The Elements) and Vitruvius (De Architectura), showing the extent to which these works were known by masters builders throughout de Middle Ages. In the books of Villard de Honnecourt, proof exists that the manual on Practical Geometry – Geometria Fabrorum – were used by architects masters builders. The training and education of architects at the time was not formal, but occurred through the tradition of practicing skills of the profession, mostly taught orally or through antique texts, available through translations in the vernacular language used mainly in Guilds. Knowledge transmitted by monks or clergy, who dominated Latin, were also important ways of enriching the procedures and traditional skills, spread orally from this source. Only at the end of the Middle Ages, some German masters builders started writing about and revealing the secret of stone masons. Design and construction detailing decisions were private, belonging essentially to the architect master builder, which proves that the medieval design, in its different forms of representation and execution, as well as various uses of tools and instruments, brought about an architectural space coherent with the knowledge of geometry and technologies available at the time.
 
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01_tese.pdf (429.22 Kbytes)
02_cap1.pdf (1.38 Mbytes)
03_cap2.pdf (1.29 Mbytes)
04_cap3.pdf (362.97 Kbytes)
04_cap3_31a.pdf (13.49 Mbytes)
04_cap3_31b.pdf (11.47 Mbytes)
04_cap3_31c.pdf (10.82 Mbytes)
04_cap3_31d.pdf (10.55 Mbytes)
04_cap3_32.pdf (2.96 Mbytes)
05_cap4.pdf (1.78 Mbytes)
06_cap5.pdf (65.81 Kbytes)
06_cap5_51.pdf (1.62 Mbytes)
06_cap5_52.pdf (4.78 Mbytes)
06_cap5_53.pdf (3.99 Mbytes)
07_cap6.pdf (69.54 Kbytes)
08_cap7.pdf (112.00 Kbytes)
Publishing Date
2006-05-25
 
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