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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.16.2012.tde-15062012-152121
Document
Author
Full name
Ana Paula Farah
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Kuhl, Beatriz Mugayar (President)
Atique, Fernando
Camargo, Monica Junqueira de
Pinheiro, Maria Lucia Bressan
Rubino, Silvana Barbosa
Title in Portuguese
Restauro arquitetônico : a formação do arquiteto-urbanista no Brasil para preservação do patrimônio edificado - o caso das escolas do Estado de São Paulo
Keywords in Portuguese
Arquitetura (Formação profissional)
Patrimônio arquitetônico (Restauro - Ensino) - São Paulo
Técnicas Retrospectivas
Abstract in Portuguese
A presente pesquisa visa discutir a formação do arquiteto-urbanista contemporâneo, no contexto brasileiro, para que tenha base adequada e o conteúdo para atuar no patrimônio construído, em construções de interesse para preservação e no ambiente preexistente. Serão analisadas as consequências da falta do ensino da disciplina de Restauro Arquitetônico, que tem tido por resultado a deturpação ou destruição de documentos históricos que são a base para memória coletiva, afetando a transmissão do legado das gerações passadas para as gerações futuras. Pretendeu-se evidenciar que, se houver sólida formação do arquiteto no âmbito do restauro arquitetônico, os profissionais terão instrumentos teóricos, críticos e técnicos para que os bens culturais sejam, de fato, preservados. Sob esse viés, será discutido o contexto brasileiro, abordando também as questões que dizem respeito à formação do arquiteto - a disciplina de Técnicas Retrospectivas - aprovada junto ao Ministério da Educação e Cultura (MEC) e da Associação Brasileira de Ensino de Arquitetura (ABEA) através da Portaria 1770 de dezembro de 1994. Serão ainda analisadas questões relacionadas à formação dos arquitetos no contexto italiano, como contraponto, trazendo à luz a história dessa disciplina no âmbito da formação naquele país, visto que as principais referências bibliografias, o aparato teórico e prático do restauro foram desenvolvidos, na maior parte, pela historiografia italiana. Por meio da repercussão dos ensinamentos propostos por Gustavo Giovannoni, que se materializam no ensino da "Escola Romana" e justificando a importância da mesma, foram analisadas as repercussões da formação na prática profissional através de duas obras de arquitetos formados na Itália, alunos de Giovannoni, que atuaram no Brasil e tiveram grande importância no cenário nacional: Gregori Warchavchik e Lina Bo Bardi. Na sequencia, é examinada a formação do arquiteto-urbanista no Brasil, tendo com recorte o Estado de São Paulo, por possuir a maior quantidade de escolas, correspondente a 30% das existentes no país, dando ênfase à disciplina Técnicas Retrospectivas, procurando examinar se os cursos (foram escolhidas três escolas para análise mais pormenorizada da grade curricular: FAU-USP, FAU-PUCCAMP e CAU - UNIP) oferecem instrumentos teórico-críticos, em primeira instância, para depois verificar os técnico-operacionais, com o intuito em atestar se os instrumentos vinculados ao campo disciplinar do restauro são, de fato, oferecidos para que os estudantes tenham clareza no modo de operar no ambiente preexistente.
Title in English
Architectural restoration: the graduation of the architect-urbanist in Brazil towards the preservation for the built heritage- the case of São Paulo state schools.
Keywords in English
Architectural heritage (Restoration - Teaching) - São Paulo
Architecture (professional training)
Retrospective techniques.
Abstract in English
The aim of the present research is to discusss the background of contemporary architects and urbanists in the Brazilian context so that they can acquire adequate basis and content to operate on the built heritage in buildings having preservation interest and in preexisting environment. It will be analysed the consequences of the lack of the teaching the discipline of Architectural Restoration, which has caused the clearance and destruction of historical documents - the basis of collective memory - and affected the transmission of this legacy to future generations. It intends to demonstrate that, if the architect acquires a solid basis in the area of architectural restoration, he will be able to master theoretical, critical and technical tools in order that this heritage can be actually preserved. In accordance with this view, it will be discussed the Brazilian context and also mentioned issues concerning the graduation of an architect - the teaching of Retrospective Techniques, which was approved by the Brazilian Ministry of Education and Culture and also by the Brazilian Association of Architectural Teaching through the motion nº 1770 in December 1994. On the other hand, it will also be investigated issues regarding the graduation of architects in Italy and presented the history of this discipline, taught in graduation courses in this country, since most bibliographic references as well as theoretical and practical apparatus of restoration have been developed mostly by the Italian historiography. Taking into account the lessons proposed by Gustavo Giovannoni that led to the teaching of his studies in the Roman School and considering the great importance of such school, the outcome of this background in professional practice was analysed through two works of architects graduated in Italy, who were former Giovannoni´s students and had a significant role in the Brazilian scenario while working here: Gregori Warchavchick and Lina Bo Bardi. Next it is examined the graduation course of an architect and urbanist in Brazil, specifically in the State of São Paulo, for it is in this state that the greatest number of schools is located - about 30% of all Architecture Schools in the country. Emphasis was given to the teaching of the subject Retrospective Techniques, which is included in the curriculum of the universities FAU-USP, FAU-PUCCAMP, and CAU-UNIP, aiming to check, first of all, if these courses offer theoretical and critical tools and after that technical and operational tools in order to certify if the instruments connected to the study of restoration are actually offered so that the students are aware of the way they can act in the preexisting environment.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-06-20
 
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