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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.17.2011.tde-19012012-153548
Document
Author
Full name
Fernanda Paula de Carvalho
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Takahashi, Catarina Satie (President)
Carrara, Helio Humberto Angotti
Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero
Title in Portuguese
Estudo de Danos Oxidativos Espontâneos no DNA de Pacientes com Lesões Malignas e Benignas de Mama.
Keywords in Portuguese
Adenose Esclerosante
Câncer de Mama
Citogenética
Danos Espontâneos no DNA.
Estresse Oxidativo
Abstract in Portuguese
O estresse oxidativo é um dos principais responsáveis pela produção de danos espontâneos no DNA, os quais podem levar à origem de diversas neoplasias, inclusive câncer de mama (CM). Além disso, dentre os diversos fatores de risco já estabelecidos para a ocorrência do CM em mulheres, como idade, hormônios, dieta e fatores genéticos, alguns tipos de lesões benignas mamárias também aparecem como importantes elementos predisponentes. Dessa forma, a pesquisa de genes envolvidos com a produção ou reparo de danos oxidativos, bem como o estudo de elementos bioquímicos relacionados à proteção antioxidante em pacientes com lesões malignas e benignas de mama são fundamentais para o entendimento do mecanismo geral que conduz ao estresse oxidativo no CM. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a frequência dos polimorfismos Ser326Cys hOGG1 e Arg38Trp AHCY pela técnica de PCR-RFLP; avaliar os níveis sanguíneos de folato, vitamina B12 e glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px); examinar o grau de lesões oxidativas espontâneas no DNA pelo Teste do Micronúcleo (MN), Índice de Divisão Nuclear (IDN) e Ensaio Cometa em linfócitos; e por fim, verificar se os polimorfismos e os elementos bioquímicos estudados exercem influência sobre tais danos oxidativos. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue periférico de 55 voluntárias sadias, 10 pacientes com adenose esclerosante (AE) e 54 pacientes com carcinoma ductal invasivo (CDI) não tratadas. Os polimorfismos foram analisados em todas as amostras. As análises bioquímica e citogenética foram realizadas numa sub-amostra composta por 21 mulheres sadias, 10 pacientes com AE e 14 pacientes com CDI. No Ensaio Cometa foi aplicada a endonuclease OGG1 para detecção de danos oxidativos. Não foi observada relação entre os alelos Ser326Cys hOGG1 e Arg38Trp AHCY e o risco de CM. O número de indivíduos portadores do alelo Arg38Trp AHCY foi insuficiente para as demais análises. Não houve deficiência ou excesso de folato e vitamina B12 entre as voluntárias. Pacientes com CDI apresentaram níveis de GSH-Px e frequência de MNs significativamente maiores do que mulheres sadias. Não houve associação entre o grau de danos espontâneos no DNA e risco de CM. O alelo Ser326Cys hOGG1 não interfere na produção de lesões espontâneas no DNA. O folato e a vitamina B12, em níveis normais, podem provocar instabilidade genômica em pacientes com AE.
Title in English
Spontaneous Oxidative Damage in DNA of Patients with Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions.
Keywords in English
Breast Cancer
Cytogenetic
DNA Spontaneous Damage.
Oxidative Stress
Sclerosing Adenosis
Abstract in English
Oxidative stress is one of the most important generators of DNA damage, which can lead to carcinogenesis of many cancer types, including breast cancer (BC). Several risk factors were established for occurrence of BC in women, such as age, hormones, diet and genetic factors, however, certain types of benign breast lesions also appear as important predisposing factors. Thus, the search for genes involved in production and repair of oxidative damage, as well as the study of biochemical elements related to the antioxidant protection in patients with malignant and benign breast lesions are fundamental for understanding the general mechanism leading to oxidative stress in the BC. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of Ser326Cys hOGG1 and Arg38Trp AHCY genetic polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP to investigate their association with BC susceptibility; evaluate folate, vitamin B-12 and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) blood levels; examine the extension of spontaneous oxidative damage in DNA by Micronucleus Test (MN), Nuclear Division Index (NDI) and Comet Assay with lymphocytes; and finally, verify if polymorphisms and biochemicals investigated may influence on oxidative damage. Peripheral blood samples of 119 volunteers were collected: 55 healthy women, 10 patients with sclerosing adenosis (SA) and 54 untreated patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Molecular analysis was performed in all samples. Biochemical and cytogenetic analysis were performed on a sub-sample of 45 individuals comprised 21 healthy women, 10 AE patients and 14 ICD patients, chosen at random from the total samples. In Comet Assay, endonuclease OGG1 was applied to detect oxidative damage. No relationship was found between Ser326Cys hOGG1 and Arg38Trp AHCY alleles and risk for BC. The number of individuals carrying the allele Arg38Trp AHCY was insufficient for further analysis. There was no deficiency or excess in folate and vitamin B12 levels among the volunteers. GSH-Px levels and frequencies of MNs were significantly higher in ICD patients than healthy women. There was no association between the degree of spontaneous DNA damage and risk for BC. Ser326Cys hOGG1 allele does not interfere on production of spontaneous DNA lesions. Normal levels of vitamin B12 and folate may cause genomic instability in AE patients.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-10-18
 
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