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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.17.2006.tde-01082007-105409
Document
Author
Full name
Carlos Alberto Werutsky
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Santos, Jose Ernesto dos (President)
Coelho, Otavio Rizzi
Marchini, Julio Sérgio
Ribeiro, Rosane Pilot Pessa
Roisenberg, Israel
Title in Portuguese
As bases moleculares das hipercolesterolemias familiares no Brasil: o Rio Grande do Sul
Keywords in Portuguese
bases moleculares
hipercolesterolemia familiar
mutações
receptor do LDL (LDLR)
Abstract in Portuguese
A hipercolesterolemia familiar (HF) é uma doença autossômica dominante causada por mutações no gene do receptor de LDL (LDLR) (cromossomo 19p13.1 - p13.3), que alteram parcialmente ou totalmente a função do LDLR. A HF é também uma das doenças genéticas mais comuns com freqüências estimadas de heterozigotos e homozigotos de 1/500 e 1/1.000.000, respectivamente. Manifesta-se com altos níveis de LDL colesterol, arco corneal, xantomas tendíneos e sintomas prematuros de doença coronariana.. A grande heterogeneidade observada na manifestação clínica desta doença pode ser explicada, ao menos parcialmente, pelo amplo espectro de mutações no gene do LDLR. O presente estudo teve por objetivo a caracterização molecular do gene LDLR em pacientes com HF do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. Para isso, foram obtidas amostras de DNA de 40 indivíduos provenientes de cinco macrorregiões do Estado, representando seis diferentes populações de ascendência européia, para a realização do seqüenciamento direto do gene do LDLR, com posterior análise por meio das ferramentas de bioinformática. Quinze mutações pontuais foram identificadas no gene do LDLR, a saber: c.408C>T (D115D), c.1616C>T (P518L), c.1773C>T (N570N) e c.2243A>G (D727G) na região codificadora, IVS6+36G>A, IVS6+171G>A, IVS11+56C>T, IVS11- 69G>T, IVS11-55A>C, IVS15-136A>G, IVS16+46C>T e IVS17-42A>G na região intrônica, e *52G>A, *105T>G e *141G>A na região 3'-UTR. Destas, oito ainda não foram descritas na literatura (três situadas nos exons, quatro nos introns e uma na região 3'-UTR). A mutação*52G>A foi previamente identificada em pacientes com HF da região Sudeste do Brasil, sugerindo que possa exercer um importante efeito na patogênese da HF em pacientes brasileiros. Em relação às macrorregiões do RS, os portugueses, italianos e espanhóis apresentaram o maior número de mutações dentre os grupos étnicos analisados. Assim, os resultados obtidos confirmam que existe um amplo de espectro de mutações no gene do LDLR. As mutações nas regiões intrônicas precisam ser investigadas sobre seu efeito potencial no desenvolvimento de HF. Considerando que este é o primeiro estudo que teve por objetivo a caracterização molecular de pacientes com HF no RS, novos estudos que visem a elucidação das bases moleculares da HF devem ser realizados, a fim de obter uma melhor caracterização genética desta doença no Brasil.
Title in English
The molecular bases of the familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul.
Keywords in English
familial hypercholesterolemia
LDL receptor (LDLR)
molecular bases
mutations
Abstract in English
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene (chromosome 19p13.1 - p13.3), which alter partially or totally the LDLR function. FH is also one of the most common inherited disorders with frequencies of heterozygotes and homozygotes estimated to be 1/500 and 1/1.000.000, respectively. Affected individuals display high levels of LDL cholesterol, arcus corneae, tendon xanthomas and premature symptomatic coronary heart disease. The extensive heterogeneity observed in the clinical manifestation of this disorder may be explained, at least partially, by the broad spectrum of mutations identified in the LDLR gene. The present study had as the main goal the molecular characterization of the LDLR gene in patients with FH from Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. For this, DNA samples were obtained from 40 individuals living in five macroregions of RS, representing six different isolated populations of European ascendancy. The LDLR gene was subjected to the direct sequencing with further analysis through bioinformatics tools. Fifteen punctual mutations were identified in the LDLR gene, namely: c.408C>T (D115D), c.1616C>T (P518L), c.1773C>T (N570N) and c.2243A>G (D727G) in the coding region, IVS6+36G>A, IVS6+171G>A, IVS11+56C>T, IVS11-69G>T, IVS11-55A>C, IVS15-136A>G, IVS16+46C>T and IVS17-42A>G in the intronic region, and *52G>A, *105T>G and *141G>A in the 3'-UTR region. Of these, eight were not yet described in the literature (three situated in exons, four in introns and one in 3'- UTR region). The *52G>A mutation was previously identified in FH patients from Southeast Brazil, suggesting that it can exert an important effect in the pathogenesis of FH in Brazilian patients. In relation to the macroregions of Rio Grande do Sul, Portuguese, Italian and Spanish subjects carried the highest number of mutations among the ethnic groups analyzed. Thus, the results obtained confirm the existence of a broad spectrum of mutations in the LDLR gene. The mutations in intronic regions need to be investigated in relation to its potential effect in the development of FH. Taking into account that this is the first study that had as the goal the molecular characterization of FH patients in RS, further studies aimed at elucidating the molecular bases of FH should be performed, in order to obtain the better characterization of this disease in Brazil.
 
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Publishing Date
2007-08-15
 
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