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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.17.2017.tde-05012017-093747
Document
Author
Full name
Ursula Thomé Costa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki (President)
Fernandes, Regina Maria Franca
Leite, João Pereira
Maia Filho, Heber de Souza
Terra, Vera Cristina
Title in Portuguese
Correlação entre semiologia clínica e achados do SPECT ictal nas crises epilépticas hipercinéticas
Keywords in Portuguese
crises hipercinéticas
epilepsia
SPECT ictal
zona epileptogênica
Abstract in Portuguese
INTRODUÇÃO: A classificação recente das Crises Hipercinéticas (CH) proposta por Rheims et al. (2008) sugere dois padrões de CH, baseado na semiologia ictal (Tipos I e II): no Tipo I, a zona epileptogênica foi identificada na região ventral pré-frontal, enquanto que no Tipo II, na região mesial pré-motora. Estudos com SPECT ictal em pacientes com CH evidenciaram hiperperfusão nas regiões frontais e extrafrontais, incluindo ínsula e lobo temporal, além de áreas subcorticais, tais como cerebelo, tálamo, gânglios da base e tronco encefálico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a rede neural ativada nas CH através do SPECT ictal, correlacionando-a aos dois subtipos de CH (Tipos I e II). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Uma amostra de 25 pacientes com idade entre 0 e 60 anos com CH que realizaram SPECT ictal foi submetida a análise do VEEG e das imagens do SPECT ictal a fim de determinar o tipo de CH e as áreas de hiperpefusão ativadas, bem como sua correlação. RESULTADOS: Nove pacientes (36%) tiveram CH do Tipo I, dez (40%), do Tipo II e seis (24%), do Tipo Misto. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os tipos de CH e a presença de semiologia ictal não hipercinética durante as crises, bem como o tempo de doença, frequência das crises, história familiar positiva e exame de neuroimagem anormal. A duração média do tempo de injeção do RF foi de 32,2 segundos. O SPECT demonstrou ativação difusa, com predomínio nas regiões subcorticais, temporal lateral, occipital mesial e frontal dorsolateral. Não houve correlação entre os diferentes tipos de CH e as áreas hiperperfundidas, exceto pela região occipital mesial, que foi significativamente maior no Tipo II. CONCLUSÃO: A classificação proposta por Rheims et al. (2008) é útil porém simplista, já que as CH abrangem uma fenomenologia complexa, não sendo possível classificar todos os pacientes em somente dois tipos (I e II). O SPECT ictal nesta amostra demonstrou a presença de hiperperfusão em diferentes áreas cerebrais, reforçando a hipótese de que uma rede neural ampla, que engloba as regiões frontais e possivelmente extrafrontais, incluindo áreas subcorticais, está envolvida na gênese destas crises.
Title in English
Ictal SPECT of Hyperkinetic Seizures: correlation between clinical patterns and functional image findings
Keywords in English
epilepsy
epileptogenic zone
hyperkinetic seizures
ictal SPECT
Abstract in English
BACKGROUND: The recent classification of hyperkinetic seizures (HS) proposed by Reims et al (2008) suggests two patterns of HS based on ictal symptomatology (Type I and II), whereas in Type I epileptogenic zone was identified in the ventromesial frontal córtex while in Type II, in the mesial premotor córtex. Ictal SPECT studies in patients with HS showed hyperperfusion in frontal and extrafrontal regions, including insula and temporal lobe, and subcortical areas, such as cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia and brain stem. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neural network activated in HS through the ictal SPECT and to correlate it to the two subtypes of HS (Type I and II). METHODS: We retrospective analyzed ictal signs and ictal SPECT data in 25 patients with HS aged between 0 and 60 years in order to determine the type of HS and the hyperperfused areas, as well as their correlation. RESULTS: Nine patients (36%) were classified as Type I, ten (40%) as Type II and 6 (24%) as a mixed type. There were no significant differences between the types of HS and the presence of non-hyperkinetic ictal semiology, as well as epilepsy duration, frequency of seizures, positive family history and abnormal neuroimage. The average injection duration time was 32.2 seconds. The ictal SPECT showed diffuse activation, predominantly in subcortical regions and the following areas: lateral temporal, mesial occipital and dorsolateral frontal cortex. There was no correlation between the different types of HS and the hyperperfused areas but the mesial occipital region that was significantly higher in Type II. CONCLUSION: The classification proposed by Rheims et al (2008) is useful but simplistic. Since the HS consists of a complex phenomenology, it is not possible to classify all patients in only two types (I and II). The ictal SPECT in this sample showed the presence of hyperperfusion in different brain areas, reinforcing the hypothesis that a broad neural network, which includes the frontal and possibly extrafrontal regions, including subcortical areas, are involved in the genesis of these seizures.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-02-15
 
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