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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.18.2016.tde-29022016-104742
Document
Author
Full name
Jussara Ferreira Michette
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Augusto Filho, Oswaldo (President)
Lorandi, Reinaldo
Riedel, Paulina Setti
Title in Portuguese
Modelos de previsão de erosão pluvial utilizando SIG: estudo na bacia hidrográfica da Represa do Lobo (Broa), SP 
Keywords in Portuguese
Erosão laminar
EUPS
Reservatório do Lobo-SP
SIG
Abstract in Portuguese
Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da avaliação da erosão pluvial laminar utilizando modelos físico-matemáticos, baseados na Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (EUPS), na bacia hidrográfica da Represa do Lobo (Broa), municípios de Itirapina e Brotas, SP, em ambiente de Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG) utilizando ferramentas do SIG ArcGis. Neste estudo, busca-se também aplicar a EUPS considerando dois métodos distintos de cálculo do fator topográfico (LS). Com o escopo de atingir tais objetivos, compilaram-se dados da pedologia, geologia, dados pluviométricos, cálculo do fator LS e usos, manejo e práticas conservacionistas obtidas do mosaico de imagem de satélite do aplicativo Google Earth. Os respectivos mapas temáticos e dos fatores da EUPS foram elaborados na escala de trabalho 1:50.000, que permitiu gerar o Mapa de Perda de Solo e seus índices do risco de erosão derivados, tais como: Potencial Natural de Erosão, Risco de Erosão Natural, Risco de Erosão Simulado e a Expectativa de Erosão, da bacia hidrográfica da Represa do Lobo. Duas metodologias distintas foram aplicadas para o cálculo do fator LS de forma automatizada: o primeiro método baseou-se na equação proposta por Moore e Wilson (1992); e a segunda corresponde à equação de Desmet e Goovers (1996) para determinar o Fator L e a equação sugerida por Nearing (1997) para o Fator S. O diagnóstico da perda de solo por unidade de área por tempo permitiu identificar as áreas mais suscetíveis aos processos erosivos. Os resultados demonstram que a bacia hidrográfica da Represa do Lobo apresenta suscetibilidade predominantemente baixa em 90,36% e 42,82% da área, respectivamente para os métodos 1 e 2, com perda de solo tolerável e expectativa de erosão predominantemente ausente, ou seja, o uso e manejo do solo atual estão provocando erosão abaixo do limite de tolerância. As taxas de perda de solo por erosão variaram de 0 a > 200 t.ha-1.ano-1 conforme o método de cálculo do fator LS. A incidência de feições erosivas e erosões lineares estão relacionadas com as áreas identificadas com maior suscetibilidade aos processos erosivos.
Title in English
Pluvial erosion prediction models using GIS: study in the watershed of Lobo (BROA) Reservoir, SP
Keywords in English
GIS
Laminar erosion
Lobo Reservoir-SP
USLE
Abstract in English
This work presents the results of an evaluation of the laminar rain erosion, using physical and mathematical models based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) in Geographic Information System (GIS) using tools of the software ArcGIS. The case study was performed in the Lobo Reservoir Watershed, also known as Broa, situated in the Itirapina and Brotas cities, São Paulo state (Brazil). This study also seeks to considerer two different methods of the topographic factor calculation (LS) in the USLE application. In order to achieve these objectives, was compiled pedology, geology and rainfall data, the calculation of the LS factor and use, management and conservation practices obtained from the satellite images mosaic of the Google Earth application. The thematic maps and the maps from the USLE factors were developed in the work scale 1:50.000, allowing generating the Soil Loss Map and its derivatives erosion risks indexes, such as: Erosion Natural Potential, Natural Erosion Risk, Simulated Erosion Risk and the Erosion Expectation in the Lobo Reservoir Watershed. Two different methodologies were applied to calculate the LS factor: the first of them was based on the equation proposed by Moore and Wilson (1992); and the second one corresponds to Desmet and Goovers (1996) and Nearing (1997), to determine the L and S factors, respectively. The diagnosis of the soil loss per unit area per time allowed identifying the most susceptible areas to erosion processes. The results shows that the Lobo Reservoir Watershed has a very low soil loss susceptibility at 90,36% and 42,82% of the area, for the methods 1 and 2, respectively, revealing tolerable soil loss and absence of erosion expectation, for most of the area. In this case, the use and management of the soil causes erosion below of the tolerance limit. The soil loss rates by erosion ranged from 0 to > 200 t.ha-1.year-1, according to the LS factor calculation method. The incidence of erosive features and linear erosions are associated to the areas identified with higher susceptibility to erosion processes.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-03-08
 
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