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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.18.2003.tde-17042004-152956
Document
Author
Full name
Marco Aurélio de Almeida Castro
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2003
Supervisor
Committee
Carneiro, Adriano Alber de Franca Mendes (President)
Andrade Filho, Marinho Gomes de
Coury, Denis Vinicius
Title in Portuguese
Estudo das técnicas de controle de cheias em usinas hidroelétricas com aplicação de novas abordagens
Keywords in Portuguese
reservatório
usinas hidroelétricas
volume de espera
Abstract in Portuguese
No sistema hidrotérmico de potência brasileiro predomina a utilização de fontes hidráulicas que correspondem à cerca de 92% da geração de energia. Assim, os reservatórios das usinas hidroelétricas assumem o importante papel de reguladores das vazões de muitos rios. O objetivo do controle de cheias é regular estas vazões evitando danos à própria usina, às regiões a jusante e às cidades ribeirinhas. As técnicas de controle de cheias em usinas hidroelétricas baseiam-se em alocação de volumes vazios nos reservatórios, os chamados volumes de espera, a fim de amortecer futuras cheias. Porém estas técnicas necessitam de profundos estudos e análises, pois a permanência destes volumes vazios prejudica a geração de energia. Neste trabalho faz-se o estudo de quatro metodologias para a alocação do volume de espera, algumas entre as mais utilizadas e outras inovadoras, as quais são: (i) Método da Curva Volume X Duração, o primeiro método aplicado no setor elétrico brasileiro; (ii) Método da Curva Volume X Duração por Janelas, que introduz o conceito de janelas aplicados ao método anterior; (iii) Método das Trajetórias Críticas, atualmente muito aplicado no setor elétrico brasileiro e que se baseia em um algoritmo recursivo; (iv) Método das Equações Diferencias Estocásticas, que modela a onda de cheia como um modelo de difusão de Markov. As metodologias são aplicadas a usinas hidroelétricas do Sistema Hidroelétrico Brasileiro e os resultados são comparados, considerando o impacto causado pela alocação dos volumes de espera à geração de energia.
Title in English
The food control techniques in hydroelectric power plants
Keywords in English
empty volumes
flood control
hydroelectric plants
Abstract in English
In the Brazilian hydrothermal power system the use of hydropower corresponds to about 92% of the total energy generation. Hence the reservoirs of the hydroelectric power plants assume the important role of regulating the water flow of many rivers. The objective of flood control is to regulate the power plants releases preventing damages to the plants themselves, to downstream regions and to marginal cities. The food control techniques in hydroelectric power plants are based on the allocation of empty volumes in the reservoirs, in order to accommodate future water inflow peaks. As the maintenance of these empty volumes harms the energy generation, the techniques applied to their determination need careful studies and analyses. In this work four methodologies to specify the needed empty volumes are investigated: (i) Method of Curve Volume X Duration, the first method applied in the Brazilian Power System; (ii) Method of Curve Volume X Duration by Windows which applies the concept of time windows to the method (i); (iii) Method of the Critical Trajectories, currently very applied in the Brazilian Power System, which is based on a recursive algorithm; (iv) Method of the Stochastic Differentiate Equations which shapes the water inflows peaks as a Markov Diffusion Model. The methodologies are applied to hydroelectric plants of the Brazilian Hydroelectric System, determining different empty volumes. The impacts of these different empty volumes on the energy generation are evaluated throughout simulation studies.
 
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Publishing Date
2004-07-14
 
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